HPS202 Cross and Szostack, Computer
HPS202 Cross and Szostack, Computer

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology

Cross and Szostack Computerdate processing major problem by end of 19CE gov and companies need to store retrieve and computer large quantities of dataHollerith system of recording alphanumeric data by punching holes in card fed into machine electrical contacts register data Tabulating Machine Company sell equipment to companies and storeselectrically powered but calculations had to be performed mech by hand pressing keysslow and subject to human errordemands of uni and gov researchcomplex calculating machinesvacuum tubes improved during interwar period computer possible replacement for analog calculatordemand for military data during WWII accelerate dev of electronic tube digital computerbuild Colossus 1943 to decipher secret German code singlepurpose machine without capacity to be programmedENIAC programmable put for new purpose in emerging nuclear physics bulky big and complex but reliable major drawback was time consumingprogrammer early on many women mathematicians massive electronic calculating machines during WWII for military and govbeginning of digital computingdevelopment of new ways for processing and storing computes become more compact
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