(Sept24-26) HIS102Y1 Chapter 5: Pages 138-168
Chapter Five: The Greeks and the Wider World
A Dark Age in Aegean Life and Culture (1200–800 b.c.e)
-Aegeans inhabited a world surrounded by mountains made overland travel difficult
-Rivers and plains allowed limited agriculture climate was dry irrigation impossible
-Sea dotted with multiple islands sailing allowed inhabitants to maintain contacts
-Relied heavily on trade and migration for their needs
-From 1200 to 800 b.c.e. was the Aegean Dark Age
-People deserted large settlements and survived in small communities of farmers and herders
Greek Colonization of the Mediterranean (800–500 b.c.e)
-Aegean people abandoned rural life around 800 BCE
-Historians call this new era in Aegean history the Archaic period (c. 800–500 BCE.).
-In the 8th century BCE, population of Greece skyrocketed could not tolerate dry climate
-Period of Greek colonization spanned more than 2 centuries migrants fanned in all directions
-During period of expansion, Greeks competed with Phoenicians, who had colonized large parts of
the western Mediterranean colonization strengthened Greek connections with larger world
-Greeks produced wines and olive oil main demand, however, was pottery
-Each city had its distinct style; modern scholars can easily determine where a vessel was made
Foreign Contacts and Influences
-Trade and visits between Phoenician traders led to a brisk exchange of ideas and practices
-Greeks’ adoption of the Phoenician alphabet in the early ninth century BCE
-First Greek inscriptions are names or curses.
-Buying art from foreign regions inspired Greek artisans to include Eastern styles in their work
-West to east, the Greeks provided manpower
-Foreign empires greatly valued skilled Greek warriors
Growth of the City-State in Archaic Greece 800–500 b.c.e.
-Population growth led to change in political organization of Aegean region formed city-states
-City state called polis self-governing community of citizens administered by officials
-Polis could be part of a larger political unit citizens shared power than depend on a king
-Citizens for a polis could only be native-born, male landowners.
-Competed with other Greek poleis for resources important duty: fight in the army
-Chariot battles led to soldiers forming phalanxes
-Phalanx: a formation of soldiers who overlap their shields and swords to protect one another
-Soldiers (hoplites) relied on cooperation to remained protected and alive during battle
-Inhabitants shared many cultural traits and ideals
-Political organization for each polis varied early city-states dominated by aristocrats
-From 650 to 500 b.c.e. individuals seized power in many city-states called tyrants
-Tyranny led to two news forms of political organization
1. Oligarchy: A political system in which a small group of people holds all powers
2. Democracy: The political ideal of rule by the people
-Tension b/w classes weakened Athens Aristocrats created new policies to reduce conflict
-First measures were the work of Solon (c. 639–559 BCE.)
-Solon cancelled all debts, freed enslaved citizens & made it illegal to force debtors into slavery
-Pericles, who led Athens, made many public works projects to reduce unemployment, and his
political initiatives brought more Athenians to city’s political structure
-Turned Athens into the most developed democratic system of government in ancient world
-Basic principle was all Athenian citizens could and should participate in gov’t
-Athenian assembly too large created smaller body to prepare laws for consideration
(Sept24-26) HIS102Y1 Chapter 5: Pages 138-168
-Sparta’s geographical setting was very different from Athens’s.
-In the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, they conquered the fertile regions surrounding them
-Used this land to support their citizens
-Spartan institution less power than Athenian assembly worked with elected council of 30 men,
all over 60 Highest Spartan officials were two kings, who ruled for life
-Primary role was to lead the army in war real power was in hands of an oligarchy
-Athenians declared that citizens should be involved in politics
-Spartans believed that only select men had the ability to govern
-Spartan economy depended on control and exploitation of nearby land and population.
-Athenians emphasized the sea and trade.
A Cultural Reawakening
-Homer and Sappho, two Greek poets stand out because of ability to depict human emotions
-Homer known for two poems: the Iliad and the Odyssey
-Iliad depicts Greek and Trojan heroes engaged in a ten-year struggle
-The Odyssey relates the adventures of one Greek warrior on his return home
-Sappho was the first known woman poet of Greek literature
Struggle Between Persia and Greece 500–479 b.c.e.
-Persian Empire thought conquest of small Greek city-states to be a minor challenge
-Persians defeated by Athenians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE
-Ten years later, Persian King Xerxes invaded Greece on land and by sea
-Thermopylae pass, 300 hundred Spartans under King Leonidas waited for Persians All died
-Xerxes entered Athens and burned down all temples and monumental buildings
-Athens prevailed and won at sea by luring Persian fleet into narrow bay at Salamis
-Persian war had consequences on Greeks led to unfair alliances, and superiority issues
-Athens and Sparta both formed a league of alliances during the war (map 5.2, pg. 150)
Sparta: Peloponnesian League Athens: Delian League
-Allied with Greek mainland with strong foot
soldiers and few ships
-Dominated city-states of Peloponnese, southern
-Allied themselves with states on Greek islands
and the Ionian coast
-Created the Delian League
-Members delivered contributions in form of ships and crew turned into silver payments used
money to build ships and crew led Athens to have region’s largest navy
Athens’s Golden Age 500–400 b.c.e.
-Athenian traders shipping items made Athenian harbour, Piraeus, dominant commercial center
-Led to an increase in Athenian power and wealth made remarkable innovations possible
-Sophist: An ancient Greek teacher of rhetoric, who were highly respected
-Believed in power of human reason saw human rationality as tool for explaining workings of
-Philosophy: The systematic intellectual endeavour of explaining basic concepts in human
existence, such as truth, knowledge, reality, and ethical behaviour
-Three famous Greek philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
-Socrates developed a mode of questioning designed to help separate truth from assumption.
(Sept24-26) HIS102Y1 Chapter 5: Pages 138-168
-Plato developed the notion of universal ideals.
-Aristotle analyzed all from literature to natural environment by classifying their elements.
-All three laid foundation of education and scientific investigation
-Herodotus wrote on Persian wars known in West as the Father of History
-Thucydides documented the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
-Cultural & intellectual flourishing (5th century BCE) spawned a sense of superiority
-They scorned those who did not speak Greek as “barbarians”
-However their dislike for foreigners, trade did not cease
The Peloponnesian War and the End of Athenian Supremacy 431–404 b.c.e.
-International trade and control over the Delian League had funded city’s Golden Age
-Power led to resentment amongst rivals, especially Sparta
-Peloponnesian War (431–404 b.c.e.) impoverished Greece and undermined its society.
-Athenians became increasingly authoritarian failed to defeat their enemies
-In 404 BCE, Sparta was the dominant power in Greece ended shortly b/c of Macedonia
-Macedonian King Philip II defeated southern Greece and forced them into an alliance (338 BCE)
Daily Life in Classical Greece
-Athens’s acropolis was a physical expression of the city’s wealth and power
-Most Greeks were poor and powerless
-In Athens, most were servant, slaves, landless poor, or resident aliens (called metics in Greek)
-Women had second-class status and little personal freedom
-Athenian men spent most of their time away from home for work or leisure
-The Spartan state owned a large group of dependent labourers (helots) who worked the land
-Helots would try to rebel Spartans used terror tactics to try to keep them in their place.
-State took boys from their mothers at age seven to train in military techniques and gymnastics
-Warriors honed their military skills while helots provided their food
-Spartan women had greater freedom responsible of household property & owned large dowries
that husbands could not take away
Creation of the Hellenistic Empires 323–275 b.c.e.
-Hellenism: The culture that derived from the merger of Greek, Southwest Asian, and Egyptian
ideas through the creation of Alexander the Great’s empire
-In 336 BCE, Alexander succeeded his father Philip of King of Macedonia
-He defeated the Persians, proclaiming himself the new master of the empire.
-In 323 BCE, he died in Babylon without an heir
-Generals fought over his large territory carved it into several states (pg 160. Map 5.3)
-The two largest kingdoms were Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Empire
•Seleucid Empire: Included lands from Syria to the Indus
•Ptolemaic Empire: Controlled Egypt and the Libyan Coast
-For common Egyptians and Babylonians, little changed
-Greeks had it harder used to small city-states, not one large Empire
-Greeks’ political system also changed: father to son rule replaced city-states ruled by citizens
The Hellenistic City
-Alexander found many cities, which he used to help establish his local dominance
-Often built in strategic locations established in previously urbanized areas
-Most prominent city = Alexandria, which Alexander founded as new capital of Egypt (331 BCE)
-Alexandria became a place that attracted people with diverse languages, customs, and religions
-The city became a center of learning, which it actively promoted through Library and Museum
Chapter five: the greeks and the wider world. A dark age in aegean life and culture (1200 800 b. c. e) Aegeans inhabited a world surrounded by mountains made overland travel difficult. Rivers and plains allowed limited agriculture climate was dry irrigation impossible. Sea dotted with multiple islands sailing allowed inhabitants to maintain contacts. Relied heavily on trade and migration for their needs. From 1200 to 800 b. c. e. was the aegean dark age. People deserted large settlements and survived in small communities of farmers and herders. Aegean people abandoned rural life around 800 bce. Historians call this new era in aegean history the archaic period (c. 800 500 bce. In the 8th century bce, population of greece skyrocketed could not tolerate dry climate. Period of greek colonization spanned more than 2 centuries migrants fanned in all directions. During period of expansion, greeks competed with phoenicians, who had colonized large parts of the western mediterranean colonization strengthened greek connections with larger world.