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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 textbook notes

Course Code
Nicholas Terpstra

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Rome and the Papal States
other communities also made major contributions to the Renaissance
oRome, though no longer the centre of a vast world empire, was mostly sustained by the
huge bureaucracy of the RCC and tourism (pilgrimages)
[except for period between 1305 and 1376 when the headquarters of the church
was in Avignon]
many prominent families who tried to control the papacy
Cola Di Rienzo (1313-1354)
took advantage of absent papacy in 1347 and 1354
oattempted to win Romes independence from papal control
eloquent speaker
1347 revolt
omanaged to convince some followers that he was the illegitimate son of the HRE Henrich
VII and as such could be the new Roman tribune of the people” who would restore
Rome to its former glory
ohe and his followers managed to gain control of Rome for 7 months
toppled by combined forces of major Roman families and papacy
1350: went to HRE Charles IV and attempted to gain his support
oimprisoned him until Pope Innocent VI secure his release
hoped Riezno, still influential, could help move the papacy from Avignon
1354 revolt:
oonce again took over Rome
odespite pretensions of planning to restore glory of ancient Roman republic, showed
himself to be a petty tyrant
okilled in revolt less than a year later by the common people who felt betrayed by him
Renaissance Popes
late 1350s: papacy restored its control
1376: papacy moved back to Rome
ofollowed by Great Western Schism with one Pope in Rome and another in Avignon
with reign of Pope Martin V (r. 1417-31) papacy was back in Rome for good
papal leadership during Renaissance determined to restore Rome to her former glory
Pope Nicholas V (r. 1447-1455)
omassive cleanup campaign
constructed new Vatican palace
rebuilt the Trevi fountaion
began rebuilding St. Peters Basilica
obrought in Lorenzo Valla to help create the superb Vatican library
Pope Pius II (r. 1458-1464)
oleading humanist
osupported artists and writers
otried to launch crusade against Ottomans
Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471-1484)
oattempted to establish political power and prestige of the papcy
plotted deaths of his enemies (Pazzi Plot of 1478)
obuilt Sistine Chapel in St. Peter’s
Pope Alexander VI (r. 1455-1458)
as a cardinal indulged in licentious dances and an orgy with several married
obribed his way to throne of St. Peter’s
oas Pope, continued to live extravagantly
lavish parties and weddings
gangsterism flourished
odid little to help Roman poor
oused power and wealth of papacy to foster the careers of his four children
Pope Julius II (r. 1503-1513)
oPapa Terrible”
olove of war
oattempted to strength papacy by expanding papal land holdings in central Italy
omasterminded coalition of forces determined to weaken the French and drive them from
ocommissioned spectacular works by Michelangelo and others
*It was the Renaissance papacy, through its patronage of artists, which managed to rekindle some of the
greatness of the city
Rome became one of the fastest growing cities in Europe in second half of the 16th century
helped encourage development of important artists such as Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentileschi
Naples and Sicily
south of Papal States
power concentrated at the top
Naples = great port city used by ships from all over the Mediterranean
oincluding Sicily – major granary
region suffered from turbulent political history caused, in part, by vulnerability to outside
oS. Italy invaded by Muslims and Normans
o1266: King of France seized the thrones of Naples and Sicily
oEaster 1282: bloody uprising against French
began when a Fr solider molested young married woman
20yr conflict [War of the Sicilian Vespers] ensued
Fr monarchy [with support of papacy]
kings of Aragon from Spain [saw an opportunity to gain a foothold in s.
result: separation of Naples [dominated by French] and Sicily [ruled by the house
of Aragon]