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Chapter 18

HIS344Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 18: Arms Control, Treaty On Conventional Armed Forces In Europe, Konstantin Chernenko

Course Code
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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1982 Brezhnev dies
He wants Chernenko as next general secretary
Andropov (chief of KGB) succeeds
Massive economic issues under Brezhnev
Attempts to eliminate corruption, inefficiency, improve labour productivity
Died in 1984
Takes power
Tries to instil corruption again
Dies in 1985
Reagan's rearmament - USSR could never afford
Strove to settle Cold War conflicts around the world which threatened the peace
Sought arms control agreements that would terminate Soviet-American competition in
conventional and nuclear weapons
- economic restructuring
- political reforms
The Changing of the Guard in the Kremlin
Renegotiate START after having been given up in 1983
1985 resumed
Reagan had big budget deficit - increase in military spending
1985 temporary moratorium on nuclear testing
Soviet concessions
SS-20s dismantled
Removal of Pershing IIs ad GLCMs
Could not agree on SDI missiles --> failed
Reykjavik meeting
Reduced zero option
Only 5% of all missiles
Asymmetrical reduction
Abandoned adequate verification procedures - monitoring system
Three major concessions on part of USSR
1987 INF Treaty
Friendly relations with US
Reduction in armed forces by half a million men over the next two years
Reduction of military in Eastern Europe
Gorbachev speech
Reduce conventional arms
CFE Treaty
Breakthrough in Arms Control
The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Empire
Latin American states cut ties with Cuba
Isolate Cuba
Cuba supplying weapons to other Latin American states
Push for sanctions against Cuba for arms
OAS broke diplomatic relations and suspended all trade
Cuba had to increase dependence upon USSR
USSR continued supplying oil, raw materials at subsidized price, purchasing sugar from Cuba
Cuba supported USSR internationally
Cuban-supported Communist revolutions failed in other Latin American states
The Specter of Castro and the Demise of the Alliance for Progress
Keylor, pp.131-136, 204-217
18. The US and Latin-America and the Decline of
Cold War
November 21, 2018
5:00 PM
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Cuban-supported Communist revolutions failed in other Latin American states
$18 billion in aid
Additional $3 billion in private investment
Latin America had borrowed so heavily that most of the money the US provided went to foreign debt
rather than alleviating poverty
Investments were not more than MNC profits
Oligarchs blocked social reforms
Diversion of funds - corruption
Gap between rich and poor did not change
Alliance for Progress
Trend towards authoritarian rule in Latin America
Destroy Cuban sugar crops
Assassinate Castro
Operation Mongoose
Fear of Cuba spreading revolution in Latin America
Radical populist
Supported redistributionist economic policies
Support for US
1963, formation of labour unions in the countryside
Higher wages for farm workers
Seizures of land by impoverished peasants
1964, Goulart forced into exile
Authoritarian military dictatorship established
US happy with coup
US had not been happy with mounting financial difficulties and populist attempts to mobilize lower
Brazil & Goulart
US protectorate (figuratively)
1961 dictator assassinated
Balaguer takes control
First free elections, 1962
New leader, Bosch
US initially liked him
Then thought he was too weak to prevent revolution
Military coup in 1963 - US did not try to stop
1965 rebels tried to overthrow new government
Johnson dispatches US marines, sends more and more troops
Fear of Communism
Violation of non-intervention of OAS Charter
1966 election won by Balaguer
Troops finally withdraw
Dominican Republic
Nixon did not care much for Latin America
Chile had been the longest and most stable democratic Latin American state
Extensive socioeconomic reforms
FRAP & Gossens
Moderate social reforms to alleviate poverty
Leave existing power relations
US government supported
CIA helped fund campaign
PDC won with 56% of the vote
PDC & Frei
1964 elections
1967 Land Reform Act - expropriation of uncultivated farmland and redistribution
Anti-American rhetoric
Allende comes back
1970 elections
Marxism and Despotism in Chile
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