Textbook Notes (362,896)
Canada (158,081)
History (100)
HIS102Y1 (9)
Chapter 5

Crossroads & Culture: Chapter 5.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Carol Chin

Sept2426HIS102Y1 Chapter 5 Pages 138168Chapter Five The Greeks and the Wider WorldA Dark Age in Aegean Life and Culture 1200800 bceAegeans inhabited a world surrounded by mountainsmade overland travel difficult Rivers and plains allowed limited agricultureclimate was dryirrigation impossibleSea dotted with multiple islandssailing allowed inhabitants to maintain contacts Relied heavily on trade and migration for their needs From 1200 to 800 bce was the Aegean Dark AgePeople deserted large settlements and survived in small communities of farmers and herdersGreek Colonization of the Mediterranean 800500 bceAegean people abandoned rural life around 800 BCE Historians call this new era in Aegean history the Archaic period c 800500 BCEthIn the 8 century BCE population of Greece skyrocketedcould not tolerate dry climatePeriod of Greek colonization spanned more than 2 centuriesmigrants fanned in all directionsDuring period of expansion Greeks competed with Phoenicians who had colonized large parts of the western Mediterraneancolonization strengthened Greek connections with larger worldGreeks produced wines and olive oilmain demand however was pottery Each city had its distinct style modern scholars can easily determine where a vessel was made Foreign Contacts and InfluencesTrade and visits between Phoenician traders led to a brisk exchange of ideas and practicesGreeks adoption of the Phoenician alphabet in the early ninth century BCEFirst Greek inscriptions are names or curses Buying art from foreign regions inspired Greek artisans to include Eastern styles in their workWest to east the Greeks provided manpowerForeign empires greatly valued skilled Greek warriorsGrowth of the CityState in Archaic Greece 800500 bcePopulation growth led to change in political organization of Aegean region formed citystatesCity state called polis selfgoverning community of citizensadministered by officialsPolis could be part of a larger political unitcitizens shared power than depend on a kingCitizens for a polis could only be nativeborn male landowners Competed with other Greek poleis for resourcesimportant duty fight in the armyChariot battles led to soldiers forming phalanxesPhalanx a formation of soldiers who overlap their shields and swords to protect one anotherSoldiers hoplites relied on cooperation to remained protected and alive during battleInhabitants shared many cultural traits and ideals Political organization for each polis variedearly citystates dominated by aristocrats From 650 to 500 bce individuals seized power in many citystatescalled tyrantsTyranny led to two news forms of political organization1Oligarchy A political system in which a small group of people holds all powers2Democracy The political ideal of rule by the peopleTension bw classes weakened AthensAristocrats created new policies to reduce conflictFirst measures were the work of Solon c 639559 BCESolon cancelled all debts freed enslaved citizensmade it illegal to force debtors into slaveryPericles who led Athens made many public works projects to reduce unemployment and his political initiatives brought more Athenians to citys political structure Turned Athens into the most developed democratic system of government in ancient worldBasic principle was all Athenian citizens could and should participate in govtAthenian assembly too largecreated smaller body to prepare laws for consideration1
More Less

Related notes for HIS102Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.