Textbook Notes (369,198)
Canada (162,457)
History (109)
HIS103Y1 (17)


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Alison Smith

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Topic Five War ofAustrian Succession & Seven Years War & War ofAme. Independence  War ofAustrian Succession: -- Charles VI died, succeeded by Maria Theresa; -- 1740 King of Prussia invaded Silesia and began the war ofAustrian Succession (1740-48); -- Great military move, but not a great political one; -- Prussia, France, Bavaria VS. England,Austria and the Dutch republic; -- Ended with the Peace ofAix-la-Chapelle (1748)  PostAustrian Succession War -- Europe returned to the status quo; -- France and Britain: -- Unsatisfied with the results; both took note of Frederick II’s unpredictability (twice enter the war), and his military genius; -- Russia: -- Unfulfilled potential: immense man power and resources; --Austria: --Unsatisfied alliance with Britain; determined to fight back for Silesia; --Austria’s national interest is not in British favor; Britain cares about howAustria can help them compel France; -- France: realized that Prussia, instead ofAustria, became the biggest threat; -- Austria realized that, Prussia needs to be isolated; Britain is no longer reliable; therefore needs to break Prussia’s only alliance in Europe: France:  The Diplomatic Revolution: Franco-Austrian alliance -- Austria has difficulties holding territories that are detached with Austria; unable to capitalize them in exchange of man power; capital; finance; -- However, France would very much want the Austrian Netherlands; France would do anything to protect theAustria Netherlands; -- Offer France the lowlands, thus break the alliance between France and Prussia; -- Moreover, both France andAustria are Catholics, while Prussia and Britain are Protestants; -- made perfect sense for France and Austria to sign an alliance;  The Diplomatic Revolution: France’s situation: -- Louis XV, knowing that Britain is mobilizing troops in NorthAmerica; war oversea is near; -- 1754, 60-80,000 French settlers in NA, with vast territories occupied (Ontario – Mississippi Valley ); th while Britain only has the small 13 colony by the eastern coast; -- Britain has navy upper hand; -- France needs continental stability to have free hand to fight in NA; thereforeAustria’s offer is not bad; -- France realized Fredrick II’s personality as well: Fredrick II’s bad behavior in previous wars; personal insult to Louis XV while Maria shows respect (Louis XV’s mistress) -- However Louis XV is still not convinced: French court was deeply anti-Habsburg for two centuries; hard to change; -- Deal was finally reached: main reason – Britain:  The Diplomatic Revolution: Britain’s Situation: -- Britain mobilizes into NA; they need to tie down France continentally; Realized the vulnerability of Hanover if France and Britain go to war in NA; If Britain is to engage France in NA, the safety and well-being of Hanover must be ensured; -- Austria declared openly that they would not help Hanover, given British behavior in Austrian succession; the Dutch was too weak to involve; Britain had therefore no continental guarantee; -- Britain turned to Russia and offered Russia a financial deal to capitalize Russia, which was exactly what Russia needed; -- Russia hated Prussia over the open sea route on the Baltic Sea; Fredrick II insult to Tsarina Elizabeth; -- “Anglo-Russia subsidizing Treaty” is established; -- Dilemma: war in NA+ need to protect Hanover + unable to subsidize Russia -- Newcastle as last approaches Prussia; only wanted Prussian neutrality rather than taking it as an ally; -- Westminster Convention (1756); --Anglo-Prussian Convention (1758); -- Louis XV was outraged by Prussia’s deal with B, and was compelled to sign the treaty withAustria; -- First Treaty of Versailles (1756); F and P neutrality and mutual military aid;  Seven Years War (1756): Prussia --After the First Treaty of Versailles,Austria began to expand it into an anti-Prussian Coalition (S,A,R); -- Prussia was alarmed and began to prepare militarily; -- 1756August attacked Saxony with huge success, initiating the Seven Years War; -- First time Russia to fight a major European war, as well as the war in NA; -- Great military move: -- Prussian army is ready, treasury is full, while other countries are not; -- Needs to act ASAP to preserve its advantages; -- Strategic importance: Saxony – defense importance of Berlin; (close to Berlin; rivers provide invasion route to Berlin); Could attackAfrom two side (from Silesia & Saxony); Wants to find out the conspiracy betweenAand F; Saxony’s huge treasury was taken over – which covers the cost of the 7-yrs war; -- But huge political blunder --All Germanic states, although militarily weak, turned against Frederick II; -- F and R completely changed the attitudes towards Prussia; -- Russian foreign policy was re-assessed: changed from pro-British, anti-French to anti-British and pro-French, but always wanted to destroy Prussia; -- Louis XV was also humiliated because his son was married to a Saxony Princess; -- Second Treaty of Versatile (1757); offering A the entire French army to fight Prussia and partition/fragment Prussia/ a subsidy of 1 million; -- F did not ask for anything in return in the STV; -- STV satisfies EVERY SINGLE ONE ofA’s national interest; huge diplomatic success forA; -- Prussia was no means capable facing such an coalition, in any aspect (militarily; financially ;)  Seven Years War: Britain -- Great dilemma for George II: what action should England take? 1. “Blue water theory”: Focusing on North America and leave the continent to its fate 2. “Continental theory”: heavy British investment in European continental warfare to keep France busy and thus having a freehand in NA(traditional method of England) -- First one, cheapest, fastest, in favor of the parliament; -- Second one, more expensive, heavier cost; -- Problem: England could not find an ally that she can subsidize to fight for England. Austria denied/Dutch declared neutrality/ -- Britain was now left alone with a unreliable ally – Prussia. -- Hanover proposed neutrality --- which was ridiculous since the elector of Hanover is the king of England -- England finally decided to find an army and subsidized it, declared war against France (1756)  French Victory and Britain sue for peace -- Excellent start for the French: surprise attack on Minorca; within a month take over the entire island; -- Huge boost of morale for French army; wiped out the army of Observation; -- England was compelled to sue for peace; -- British neutrality, non-
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