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Chapter 1-3

Textbook notes: The great powers and the European states system - for: chapter 1-3

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

nd BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen Chapter 1  Introduction: the character of international relations, 1814-1914 Vienna – WWI: general characteristics: − Eur dominated by 5 powers: Aus (after 1867: Aus-Hung); Fr, Brit, Rus, Prus (after 1871: Ger)  Italy only allowed in after its role in Concert dealing w/ Ottoman, and finding an ally in C Eur (1886)  “Guardians of peace”; consulted each other in major issues… − Stability in IR: this period: only 1848-9 upheaval was seen to might have destroyed the stability but Aus was saved by Rus − Aus still a great power even after defeat (1859; 1866) & Fr, too, after being defeated militarily (1971) − Attempts to maintain status quo (the great-power sys): collapse of 5-powers sys could destroy them all − Smaller states: expected protection (fm great powers) fm external assault & milit assistance to suppress rev − 2 categories of Eur Great Powers: 1) ones w/ Eur territory & interests (Aus + Prus); 2) those with extensive possession, infl & interest outside of Eur (Brit & Rus; later France) − Main characteristic of Great Powers: largest, richest & most populous states; yet hierarchy w/I their ranks − The concept of BofP was hardly ever used except by Brit; for E powers it was more ‘security’ against the great dangers that confronted them; after the unification of Ger, BofP was centered around Ger The concept of Concert − Formal & recognized procedure through which peace & status quo can be maintained − 1822-1913: 26 concert attended by reps of all the great powers − Principle assumptions: changes in the territorial order required the consent of the great powers; but this was impossible for the Great Powers b/c they were constantly in fight over territories (i.e. issue of A-L) Variation of characteristics through time − B4 50s: elites faced the danger of nationalism & liberalism & they attempted to destroy that challenge − 50s-60s: priorities = Eur (territorial expansion) + only non-Eur issue = fall of Ottoman auth in its C Asia & N Africa threatened the rel b/w Great Powers (I.e. Rus vs. Brit & Brit vs. Fr) − 70s: worldwide depression & gov’t were fearful that annexations of territory by commercial rivals might be followed by the closure of markets + defeat of Nap III allowed Powers to focus on expanding outside Eur − 80s/90s: imperialist activities (extra-Eur activities) the partition of Africa + intervention in China − Pre-Crimean era: Great Powers only reacted to crises + attempted to prevent them from disturbing peace − Until 1871: allies provoked most diplomatic crises; afterwards: the smaller states did (like post-1815 era) Views on the concept of war: − Wars: localized; had limited objectives; all the powers attempt to prove their war-making capacity  led to mandatory conscription + appointment of general staffs (made war plans) BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen th − After mid-19 c: the wars were fought with new weapons, new tech, a new speed & smaller armies  there was increase in the imp of efficient organization of manpower resources, their armament & their speedy and effective deployment on the battlefield (through the railroad) Views on the treaty structure of Eur − 1815: common obligation to uphold the structure b/c: 1) to contain France; 2) Great power have made gains − 50s/60s: treaty maintenance was either disregarded or manipulated by power that wanted treaty revision; treaty revision were justified based on either that an unnatural coalitions were against them − 1871 (London Protocol): reaffirmed treaties couldn’t be legally altered w/o the consent of all the signatories Network of dynastic links − Close fam ties & close friendship b/t the sovereigns of the great powers; Belief that the monarchs must stand together or they would fall together; Widely accepted that a despite b/t 2 states could be settles by the mediation of a 3 sovereign; Dynastic alliance cemented political agreement & symbolized co-operation Diplomacy during this period − All the allthnce after 1879 were strictly defensive (with very few exceptions) − By mid-19 c, all the Great Powers used media to infl & regulate public opinion on international affairs − Late 19 c: emergence of permanent foreign ministers + diplomats − Communication of diplomacy: in pre-Crimean era, negotiations lasted for several months (even years) b/c of the lack of communication; afterward they were done quicker • Emphasis on domestic propaganda (persuade public to fight in a defensive war − Essentially, the Eur SS was still like that of the Congress of Vienna on the eve of WWI Chapter 2  The reconstruction of Europe and the alliance, 1812-23 The peace settlement of 1814-15 Why Rus pursued Grande armée? (1813) − Tsar Alex viewed himself as the divinely appointed savoir of Eur from the anti-Christ − He wanted to avenge the burning of Moscow by marching into Paris − The traditional Rus expansionism (already underway in Asia; now Eur) − A determination to settle accounts with Fr who always stood in Rus’ way, i.e.: 1) helped Turks against Rus during the war of 1806-12; 2) he transformed the Grande Duchy of Warsaw into arsenal threatening Rus Prus join Rus − Why: 1) Fr threatened Prus; Alex did too, but it was accompanied by prospects of territorial gains for Prus at the expense of Nap’s allies; 2) Russian troops were actually already on Prus soil − Result: Rus-Prus Treaty of Kalisch (28 Feb 1813) Brit contribution to the coalition(s) − Through the Treaty of Bucharest (July 1812), Brit was able to free Rus from her Turkish entanglements BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen − March 1813: they secured an alliance w/, promising subsidies & support for the transfer of Norway from Denmark to Swed in return for their milit action against Fr in N Ger − 2 subsidy & alliance treaties w/ Rus & Prus: i.e. Third Treaty of Reichenbach (27 June 1813) Austria joins the allies − Metternich (diplomat) avoids to join the allies & sought to manoeuvre b/w Rus & Prus to undermine France’s infl in Ger w/o allowing the N powers to est their own control of C Eur  this he did through keeping France as a factor in BofP & stopping the war b4 Rus and Prus became to strong − Aus decided to join the allies after Nap refused to make any significant concessions − Reason to join: in hope of bringing Nap to reason by force of arms (12 Aug: joined) • He wanted to est a balance b/t he belligerents (led to creation of the Treaties of Teplitz of 9 sep) Metternich and his victories w/ Allies − After the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig (18 Oct), he persuaded his allies to offer the ‘Frankfort proposals’ to Nap in Nov; under the proposal: • Concede to France her ‘natural frontiers’ (incl Belgium) but allow France to practice infl in Ger although the confederation of the Rhine was to be dismantled − Metternich took sm steps to secure Aus’ interests: i.e. 1. He concluded the Treaty of Ried w/ the king of Bavaria (8 Oct) [it maintained existing sovereign stats 2. He concluded further treaties w/ other Ger States (est Aus satellites that /ed Prus into 2) 3. He sent in troops into Switzerland & est a conservative regime there 2 developments in Jan 1814: − Castlereagh directly got involved in the peace process by going to the continent (Brit diplomacy was integrated into that of the continental powers) − The allies decided to work ‘collectively’ & ‘for Eur’ (considering Nap’s exploitation of st th divide b/t the allies)  1 example of the ‘Concert system’ that marked much of 19 century diplomacy Castlereagh’s (Brit foreign secretary) contributions & role in the peace process − It was through Third Treaty of Reichenbach (1813), Castlereagh secured the support of his new allies for Brit’s own war aims in Spain, S Italy & Baltic − His contribution during 1814 peace period: • brought about Aus to reduce France to her prewar frontiers (b/c the Frankford proposals left Fr w/ Antwerp  pistol pointed at the heart of England) • discouraged Rus from pursuing his plans of installing a pro-Rus puppet regime in Paris • Greatest achievement: Treaty of Chaumont (9 March)  Push France out of Spain, Italy & Ger  France was suppose to be stripped of all the gains they had made on the E frontier since the outbreak of the Revolutionary Wars in 1792 Peacemaking Process − Allies faced with a prob: Nap refused to accept the terms (Congress of Chatillon); Solution: restore the Bourbon monarchy under Louis XVIII BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen − This process was dominated by Rus  i.e. During the Treaty of Fontainebleau (11 Apr) Alex est’d Nap as a sovereign in the island of Elba (too close to mainland of Eur) − However, Rus was replaced by Brit (& Aus) by the time of Treaty of Paris (30 May) − During the T of Paris, Castlereagh negotiated quite independently of his allies  i.e. only he negotiated w/ Dutch about the purchase of the Cape of Good hope; w/ France = Malta & Mauritius; & w/ Spain = securing Brit’s commercial privileges in S America Term of the Treaty of Paris (30 May 1814) − France was forced to withdraw behind her 1972 frontiers − Genoa was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sard; republic of Venice + Milan were put under Aus control − Independence of Switz was reinforced by Eur − Aus Netherlands + Rhineland (occupied by Fr) were /ed b/t Holland & various Ger states, backed by Prus Treaties = Vic of Brit − They secured her vital interests (pol, commercial & strategic) on the continent & overseas − This left Brit in relatively strong position by the time Congress of Vienna rolled in Congress of Vienna (characteristics) [Oct 1814-June 1815] th − This type of system characterized Eur SS in the 19 century − The congresses was never suppose to be carried beyond the leading 6 powers of the 1 order − The actual decision-making process at the C of Vienna was largely confined to the ‘Cabinet’ of 4 The Polish-Saxony Issue − Grand Duchy of Warsaw (Prus & Aus territories) under Ger ally, King of Saxony − Rus’ View: Alex (inspired by his polish advisor: Czartoriski) was determined to transform it into an autonomous constitutional kingdom for himself; he alleged it was his duty to the Pol nation + it was his idea of BofP (b/t other powers were going to make gains in the W) − Aus’ view: the disappearance of Saxony would double the frontier Aus had to defend against Prus + est of Rus in the heart of C Eur would threaten Galicia + Vienna & Berlin − Castlereagh’s attempt to solve the prob: in Oct he persuaded Metternich & Hardenberg (Prus diplomat) to reclaim their territories in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw & they’ll give Saxony to Rus for its cooperation − Failure of Castlereagh’s plan: Alex told King Fredrick to stand by the Kalisch agreement; after this the Grand Duchy of Warsaw was lost to Russia − End Result of his failure: 1) the lack of BofP as desired by Brit; 2) Prus making their claims to Saxony, meaning the enmity b/t Aus & Prus may begin again & the strong C Eur to keep France in order will fail Final results (mostly work of Castlereagh) − Castlereagh + Metternich jointly concluded a defensive alliance w/ France (03 Jan 1915) (Castlereagh) − Prus agreed w/ having the N part of Saxony to themselves after Rus abandoned them (Castlereagh) − Aus ceded better strategic frontier in Saxony than the milit party in Vienna allowed (Castlereagh) BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen − Fredrick abandoned his claim to the ‘trophy’ of Leipzig (Castlereagh) − Alex returned Posen (a former Prus territory in the duchy) back to Prus (Castlereagh) − Both Ger powers were satisfied w/ the final settlement: Bavaria returned Salzburg & Tyrol to Aus Overall impact of the issue: − Aus didn’t trust Prus as much anymore (b4 they were ready to hv an effective central directory consisting of 5 leading Ger states under Aus-Prus leadership)… Now: they sided w/ middle states • Result: a confederation that was very loosely organized under the formal presidency of Aus • Prus was satisfied b/t it implied they might some day they could unite their scattered provinces − It allowed the admission of France into the decision-making forum (until the return of Nap) − Castlereagh’s role: he negotiated the final arrangements w/ France: Ferdinand was restored in Naples & in return Fr recognized Aus predominance in C Italy Impact of Nap’s return on the settlement: − France’s voice was not heard in the Ger + It questions at Vienna − Restoration of Ferdinand was as an Aus client (not Fr); resulted in a treaty under which committed him to not change the constitution w/o Aus consent − Habsburg client rulers were restored in Tuscany & Modena − Est. of BofP that suited Aus & Brit (Aus control of Italy, backed by Brit control of Aegean islands Nap’s return & his fall & the impact − Prus & brit forces defeated Nap at Waterloo (18 June); Wellington (Brit) took Paris & restored Bourbons − Richelieu succeeded Talleyrand as the minister of Fr − Prus made claims to Alsace, again, leading Dutch & W Ger states on an annexationist campaign 2 Treaty of Paris (20 Nov 1815) Terms: reflected allied concern of security of allies; Alex’s desire to be Fr’s protector; Brit’s fear that harsher terms would only undermine Bourbon regime + make Fr unhappy in a stable SS − Fr lost nothing beyond the gains the 1 T of Paris had allowed to retain in Savoy − payment of an indemnity of Fr. 700,000,000 = spent on strengthening the border defences of Netherlands, Ger Confederation of Savoy − Temporary occupation by allied forces of the 14 frontier fortresses & some E provinces of Fr Quadruple Alliance and Holy alliance, 1815-20 Purpose of the Quadruple Alliance: − Commitment of the 4-powers to immediate joint milit action in case of a Bonapartist restoration in Fr or a Fr attack on the frontiers recently established by Vienna & Paris; for about 20 yrs − Article VI (6): unite the 4 sovereigns  to renew their meetings at fixed periods; measures will be taken at these periods for the repose & prosperity of nations; maintain the peace of Eur − For Brit it served as the straitjacket to hold Rus to a common line of action or inaction nd BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen Brit’s gain in from the alliance + peace settlement − Containment of France = creation of buffer states backed by Prus (N); Aus (S); all enforced by the alliance + security against the adventurist Rus − Brit becomes a much greater power in terms of naval, strategic & commercial gains Aus’ gain in from the alliance + peace settlement − Satiated, but dangerously over-stretched power  by exploiting the allies, they established a position in Italy & Ger (which they couldn’t maintain LT); their weaknesses become more evident: − The gains of the allies (i.e. revival of Brit industry & Rus agrarian exports) showed the eco weakness of Aus − They had a very small army (230 000) compared to their population of 30 mil ppl − Aus statesmen tried to est legitimacy for treaty rights as the basis for IR; but Aus lacked the resources − The Quad A provided Aus w/ security against threat from Fr revisionism in Italy + expansion of Rus; it prevented the a possible Fr-Rus alignment Rus’ gain in from the alliance + peace settlement − Least satisfied w/ the peace settlement b/c they felt the BofP est. in 1815 was fraudulent as it failed to provide any check on Brit’s maritime predominance in the rest of the world (a source of friction) − Alex’s role in Pol (1815) ensured the weight of his views in Vienna & Berlin + his had infl on the confederation b/c of dynastic ties w/ Prus, Neth & rulers of S Ger states − b/c of the constrains on Rus, Alex tried to secure the support of other powers in est’ing a genuine world balance & prob make something out of the Holy A − the alliance frustrated any efforts of Richelieu & Borgo to dev special rel b/t Rus & France France & the Quad alliance − France’s eco recovered faster than the allies t/f could quickly pay off the indemnity + the presence of the troops was inflammatory rather than a stabilizing force − Fr & Rus wanted to transform it into Quintuple alliance w/ Fr as equal partner or it be destroyed completely = Aus & Brit were against this & this view prevailed (they managed to persuade Tsar to not help France in any areas: i.e. in Spanish Am colonies Purpose of the Holy Alliance (26 Sep 1815) [signed b/t Aus + Prus + Rus] − rose from a mixture of doctrines of Enlightenment + deeply personal Christianity (of Alex) − Alex’s idea was to abandon the old diplomacy & est a new int’l order in which sovereigns & ppl would unite, to defend the ‘sacred principles which our Divine Saviour has taught to mankind’ − But Metternich only agreed to a simple alliance of sovereigns dedicated to the same noble ends − Soon after it dev a pol fnc: general alliance of all states, great & small, dev in response to Quad A; reflecting growing Rus resentment at the constrains imposed by the 4-powers directory + the resentment of Fr at her exclusion from it − Problem this caused: which alliance was to form the basis of the Eur SS: Quad A/Holy A/alliance générale Reasons of rejection of alliance générale − Brit: the parliament wouldn’t agree to any new alliance, esp. a general one − Prus was worried about the recently acquired Catholic Rhineland nd BOOK: The Great Power and the European states system (2 ed.) by: Bridge & Bullen − Metternich was afraid of the threat revolutionary ideas posed to the king’s empire + possible Fr-Rus combo Overall impact of the issue − Quad alliance against Fr was once again re-established = Fr was linked into the system (b/c it could be a source of trouble in the future) by being invited to attend any congress summoned under Article 6 − Fr’s hope of breaking the isolation by making a link w/ Rus failed The problem of revolution and the neo-holy alliance, 1820-21 − There were threats of revolution; results: all the gov’t tried to stand together against the universal menace + Alex grew more suspicious of Fr + it reinforced Brit-Aus dominance of SS Issue#1: Karlsbad Decrees (1819) − Metternich took advantage (w/ support from king of Prus) & met w/ reps of other Ger states in meetings: their decisions (control of intellectual activity + est. of a commission to investigate subversive inds) were incorporated into Ger Federal Law (1820) − Result: Aus had more control over the confederation w/ Prus obediently following − Other powers’ response: 1) Fr = complained; 2) Alex’s relatives in SW Ger raised questions; 3) A
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