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A Swift And Sure Peace: The Congress of Westphalia 1643-1648

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Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Professor
Ebba Kurt
Semester
Fall

Description
ASwift And SurePeace: The Congressof Westphalia 1643-1648 DerekCroxtonandGeoffreyParker From:TheMakingofPeace- MurrayandLacey Monday,September 12, 2011 2:02PM Toensure the survival of every single state in SECULARIZATION ofEuropeanDiplomacy Europe,war prompted the development of DECENTRALIZATION of powerintonationstates - PopesensedthreatbyMuslimOttomanstoChristianity institutionsand the relations between the - FrancewantedtomanipulateanprovokeOttomanstoattackHapsburgs,whowouldturnto Francefor nation states aid - France,althoughCatholic,reliedheavilyonProtestantalliances - PopefeltlittleinfluenceonCatholicconcessions ○ "Whereas the negotiations had begun under the auspices of the papacy, they endedwith a peace the papacy refused to accept." (73) ○ PapaldisconnectfromEuropeandiplomacy ○ SecularizationofEuropeanpolitics - Anti-ProtestClause ○ Anydenunciationofthetreatiesconsideredinvalid ○ ProtestantsfearfulandmistrustingofthereliabilityofCatholicpromises - SingleUnifiedEuropevs.Decentralization ○ CreationofaUnifiedChristendomunderHapsburgrulewouldnothappen ○ CreationofmultiplepowerfulnationsinWesternEurope - NewinternationalsystemofamultinationalEurope ○ "Unlike Dante, who believe that union under a single state is necessary to create peace, Cruce and Sully considered amultilateral international system both desirable and a feasible framework for peace." (75) ○ "RichelieuandOxenstierna wanted to establish the preconditions for lasting peace in a multilateral framework. Their watchwords were liberty and balance, their fear was universal monarchy, and their goal was security."(76) ThreeReasonsfortheJustificationofWarbefore1648 1) WarsagainstNon-Christians 2) Rebellionagainstanation'ssovereign 3) Enforcehereditaryclaimstoprovincesorkingsdoms - JustificationofThirtyYearsWardidnot draw on thosethreecategories,but"thepreventionofathreat totheSpanishEmpire."(77) Wasitreallyathreatto the SpanishEmpire?OrtheSpanish - "RichelieuarguedthatSpanwasathreat to otherstatedin general,andthatFrancewasactingto
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