Western Civilizations: p. 426 - 434, 440 - 446
& Vol. 1: p. 455 - 458, 478, 484 - 485
& Seminar 4 - The Wars of Religion
October 22nd & October 24th/2012
Perspectives From the Past: p. 455 - 458, 478, 484 - 485
A Venetian Ambassador’s Report on the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
-> the Renaissance implemented permanent diplomats into the state system and the
Venetian diplomats were considered to be the most skilled and respected
- admiral de Coligny was shot in the arm before the massacre, so the Duke of Guise
knew he might be attacked
- the French say that the King ordered the attack
- the slaughter went passed Sunday for two or three days
- men killed each other because of personal vendettas and claimed it was because they
were a Protestant or a Catholic
- up to 4000 men were killed
1) This report indicated the the massacre began at the top levels of society who ordered
the assassinations take place.
2) A person was identiﬁed as a Catholic or a Hugenot by their neighbours, even if they
weren’t necessarily either.
3) This conﬂict and how quickly it spread through France indicated that religious identity
was one of the most important identiﬁers in the country. This is why the spark of the
assassinations at the wedding could cause such uproar.
4) This report indicates that the assassination of the admiral was ordered by the King of
France but this was not concretely proven.
5) The massacre was caused by the dowager Queen Catherine and her Catholic
6) From this we can surmise that religious circumstances were more important than
The Religious Peace of Augsburg
-> the work that ofﬁcially ended the struggle between HRE Charles V and an alliance of
- allowed religious freedom for Lutheran to enjoy their belief, liturgy and ceremonies
- only allowed freedom for Lutherans and Catholics, others would still be persecuted
1) This document was called “Religious Peace” since it ensured just enough religious
tolerance to end the sustained ﬁghting between Lutheran princes and the HRE.
2) This document speciﬁcally allowed public worship by Lutherans as well as Lutheran
princes to hold land. 3) This document disallowed religions other than the two named to enjoy any of these
new freedoms and it disallowed people to move regions based upon religious
4) Due to the limitations of this “peace” it is not really an act of religious toleration, more
a compromise to end the conﬂict that had spread throughout German speaking
5) Section 18 indicates that once a religious ﬁgure converts out of Catholicism, they are
not allowed to take any money or property that they earned as a priest with them.
Their possessions would be taken and given to the religious ﬁgure which replaces
6) This peace indicates that future conﬂict could arise if the ruler of one region began to
interfere with the religious matters of a neighbouring region.
- following the Reformation, Europe’s religious differences multiplied and often identiﬁed
with political divisions
- ie. Protestantism triumphed in areas where those in power stood to gain from rejecting
- most 16th century rulers believed allowing religious pluralism would lead to chaos
- they could not agree on which faith however
The Price Revolution:
- the ﬁrst warning signs of the century of turmoil between 1540 and 660
- economic situations became harder for Europeans; prices skyrocketed leading to the
- aggressive entrepreneurs and large scale farmers beneﬁtted the most from these
economic changes, but the masses of labouring people just struggled more
- rich got richer while the poor got poorer
- states tried to stop all political and religious resistance however in the process, they
sometimes provoked civil wars
- these civil wars (or wars of religion) are divided into 4 phases
1) Regional Wars in Germany (1540s to 1555): the HRE Charles V was a devout
Catholic and launched a military campaign against several Lutheran German Princes.
Even the Catholic Princes of Germany fought against him because they feared
allowing the Roman Empire power over any German states would cause even the
Catholic princes to lose their independence. Regional warfare continued until a
promise was reached by the Peace of Augsburg in 1955. This enabled “cuius regio,
eius religio” which meant that the r