1848 Revolutions

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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19 CENTURY EUROPE LECTURE 10 1848 REBELLIONS February revolution in France - Gvnt caught between nobles who insisted the monarchy had no legitimacy and republicans demanding a regime based on popular sovereignty - Poor harvest - Republicans called for an expanded electoral franchise o Banquet to be held on February 22, 1848 cancelled by premier -> riots o Troops fired on protestors, killed 40 people - Louis-Phillipe abdicates, people declare second French republic - Chamber of deputies creates provisional gvnt o Declares universal male suffrage and abolishes slavery in colonies - Poor economy, unemployment o 45 centimes tax – raised taxes by 45% - Gvnt looked after unemployed, maximum of 10 hours of work in Paris (12 in provinces) - Women in Paris sought equality before the law, right to votes, right to divorce, and better working conditions - April elections resulted in a conservative majority with republicans winning only 100 out of 900 seats German states - Liberals and radicals demanded: o End to all remaining feudal obligations owed from peasants to nobles o End of political repression o Granting of a constitution o Freedom of assembly and the press o Expansion of the electoral franchise - Liberals rejected universal male suffrage - Radicals believed on revolution could guarantee results - Revolution in France convinced German rulers to grant liberal concessions - March 18, 1848 – King Frederick William IV convokes the United Diet o Replaced the more conservative cabinet with a liberal one o Promised to end censorship and grant constitution o Would push for joint constitution of the German states - Shots were fires, barricades put up - Army killed 250 insurgents - Artisans demanded state protection Central Europe - Liberals wanted constitutional reforms, complete emancipation of the peasantry, greater efficiency in the administrations of Hapsburg lands, freedom of the press, and the expansion of the electoral franchise - Hungary wanted independence from Austria th - March 13 , 1848 o Student and artisans in Vienna demanded reforms o Troops fired killing 7 protestors o King Ferdinand I gets rid of Metternich, capitulates to liberal demands - Workshops opened up for employment - Expansion of electoral franchise - September 1848 – abolition of feudal peasantry o Compensated lords for losses - Kossuth and allies created the march laws o Delegates to the Hungarian diet were to be elected by male property holders o Hungary would have a separate army and conduct its own foreign policy - Minorities in Hungary (Croats, Serbians, and Romanians) were not consulted - Hapsburgs rescinded concessions to the march laws - Czechs in Bohemia demanded an autonomous state only loosely tied to the old monarchy in Germany (like hungary) o Wanted Czech to be equal to Germany Italy - Typical concessions to typical liberal demands - March 18 , 1848 o 10,000 people marched to the governor general with a petition calling for liberal reforms o Barricades, street fighting - Insurgents established a provisional republican government - King Charles Albert of Piedmont Sardinia led an invasion against Austria in pursuit of Italian unification - Defeat of Austrian army, union of Lombardy and Piedmont - August 1848 – Austrian army defeat Piedmontese army - King Charles negotiated an armistice with Austria COUNTER-REVOLUTIONS France th - May 15 – radicals tried and failed to dissolve the constituent assembly and create a social republic o Radicals were now arrested rd - June 23 – the assembly announced the workshops would be closed in three days o Unmarried workers would be drafted into the army, married workers would be sent to the provinces
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