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HMB265H1 (55)
Chapter 1

Notes for textbook chapter 1

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Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB265H1
Professor
Stephen Wright

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Lecture 01: Genetics and genomics of human
biology
1.1Nature of biological information
-DNA: biological information encoded as a nucleotide sequence
oDouble helix of 2 nucleotide chains held together by
complementary pairing of A with T, G with C
-Nuclear DNA org anized into genes and chromosomes
oGenes: DNAs functional regions spaced out along
chromosomal DNA
oChromosome: double helix coiled around nucleosome
Nucleosome: 8 histones
-Humans
oDiploid 2n = 46
Homologous chromosomes: chromosome p a ir
Genes in pairs
-Extranuclear DNA
oMitochondrial and chloroplast DNA
-Prokaryotes
o Uncoiled circular chromosome plus plasmids
-Viruses
oMuch smaller, linear
1.2How information becomes biological form
-Biological form: structural, enzymatic, regulatory proteins
oProtein synthesis: transcription, translation
DNA mRNA protein
-Life perpetuates by high-fidelity replication of genome
-Hereditary change via DNA mutations or epigenetic effects and
environmental factors variation
1.3Genetics and evolution
-Theory of evolution
oHomology species similar
Species having common ancestry
oNatural selection species different
Individuals with cer tain trait re produce better
than others
-Genetics supports and elucidates evolution at DNA level
oEven after species diverge, DNA sequences have much
similarity
Evolutio na ry trees
1.4Genetics as Biological Research Technique
-Mutational dissection analyzes normal and abnormal gene
function to study normal f unction
oForward genetics: mutate normal form to determine
function and DNA sequence
oReverse genetics: mutate known gene sequence to
determine function
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Description
Lecture 01: Genetics and genomics of human biology 1.1 Nature of biological information - DNA: biological information encoded as a nucleotide sequence o Double helix of 2 nucleotide chains held together by complementary pairing of A with T, G with C - Nuclear DNA organized into genes and chromosomes o Genes: DNAs functional regions spaced out along chromosomal DNA o Chromosome: double helix coiled around nucleosome Nucleosome: 8 histones - Humans o Diploid 2n = 46 Homologous chromosomes: chromosome pair Genes in pairs - Extranuclear DNA o Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA - Prokaryotes o Uncoiled circular chromosome plus plasmids - Viruses o Much smaller, linear 1.2 How information becomes biological form - Biological form: structural, enzymatic, regulatory proteins o Protein synthesis: transcription, translation DNA mRNA pr
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