Chapter 10 Notes

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Human Biology
Professor Niemeier

Chapter 10  Retinofugal projection o Optic nerve -> optic chiasm -> optic tract  Decussation -> crossing of fiber bundle from one side to other -> optic chiasm -> partial decussation  Binocular visual field -> central portion of visual hemifield viewed by both eyes  Optic racti -> LGN –optic radiation --> primary visual cortex  Ablation to o Left optic nerve – blind left eye o Left optic tract – blind right visual (homonymous hemionopia) fiend o Optic chiasm (heteronymous hemianopia) – loss of peripheral optic tract – hypothalamus  Sleep/wake cycle  Optic tract- prectum (midbrain) o Control eye movements  Optic tract – superior colliculus o Saccadic eye movements  Pituitary hypertrophy – excessive growth (thyroid), optic chiasm can’t cross – bitemporal hemianopia o No peripheral vision  Optic tectum = superior colliculus in vertebrate groups  Retinotectal project – form retina to superior colliculus  LGN – 6 layers o I, II – ventral, large, magnocellular – L, R o III – VI – dorsal, small, parvocellular – R, L, R, L  Koniocellular- tiny neurons ventral to layers – input from nonM – nonP  Retinopy- organization whereby neighbouring cells in retina feed info to neighbouring places in target  Striate cortex o Layer IV- IVA  IVB  IVC  IVC alpha  IVC beta  Magnocellular LGN neurons – IVC alpha  Parvocellular LGN neurons- IVC beta  Koniocellular – bypass IV to synapse in II and III o (alpha on top of beta)  Transneuronal autoradiography o Radioactive proline taken up, made into proteins after injection to eye, transport to LGN, then striate cortex view with radiography  Pyramidal cell output o Layers II, III, IVBeta – to other cortical areas o Layer V – to superior colliculus and pons o Layer VI – back to LGN  Ocular dominance columns o Patches for EACH eye  Ocular dominance columns o Equially spaced patches of different inputs in striate cortex  Autoradiograph – collection of silver grains on the film marking location  Radial connections – III – same retina  Horizontal connections - --- - same later  II, III – BINOCULAR input  IVCalpha (magno) – IVB  IV beta (parvo) – III  Blobs – cytochrome oxidase reh neurons, bundled in layers II, III, V, VI  Receive input from konio, magno and parvo ( of layer IVC)  IVCalpha – like magno – insensitive to wavelength  IVC beta – parvo – colour opponency  Binocular receptive field – two receptive fields – ipsilateral and contralateral  All neurons
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