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HMB200H1 (69)

Ch 1 & 2 (pg.1-27) - History of Neuroscience

5 Pages

Human Biology
Course Code
John Yeomans

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Cerebrum in frontsoft doughy recipient HMB200H1S Ch1of sensationsNeurosci Past PresentFutureRecognized that sensations must be Introimprinted into brain to form memoriesthe brain exercises the greatest power in the mancerebellum in backhard command Hippocratesmuscleshuman nature to be curious general conclusions correct reached for society of neurosci founded in 1970 neuroscinew wrong reasonswordCut open brain found is hollowhollow spaces scientists came from dif disciplines med bioventricles contain fluidpsych physics chemFit prevailing belief of body fning according best hope to understand braininterdisciplinaryto balance of 4 vital fluidshumorsas broad a field as natural sciSensations registeredmovements initiated common focus ptNSby movement of humors to or from neuroscientistinvolved in scientific investigation of ventricles via nerves believed to be hollow NStubes like blood vesselsThe Origins of NeuroscienceViews of the Brain during the RenaissanceNSbrain spinal cord body nerves crucial for life Galens viewprevailed almost 1500yearsenables to sense move thinkMore detail added by Andreas VesaliusArcheological recordhominid skulls back 1mil yrs Ventricular localization of brain fn unchallengedfatal cranial damage from othersthStrengthened in early 17French developing As early at 7000 yrs agotrepanationboring holes hydraulic machinesin skulls to cureBrainmachine fluid pumped thru nerves Carried out on live subjects not a death ritualpumps you uplimbs move muscles bulge Some indivs survived multiple surgerieswhen contractSpeculated used to treat headaches mental Descartescant account for all human bhvrdisordersPpl have intellect gd given soulgive spirits escape routeBrain controls animallike mechanismsEgypt almost 5000yrs agoaware of many Uniquely human abilities in mindspiritual symptoms of brain damagereceives sensationscommands movements by Considered heart as seat of soul repository of communicating w brain machinery thru pineal memoriesglandRest of body preserved brain scooped out thru Hollow nerves from eyesnostrils discardedMinddistinct from brainThis view not challenged until Hippocratesthth1718 less focus on ventriclesthBrain divided in grey matterwhite matterViews of the Brain in Ancient Greece 4 century White continuous w nerves of body contains BCfibres that bring info tofrom grey matterdif parts of body look dif cause have dif purposesthBy end of 18 whole NS dissected described in correlation btwn structurefndetailhead specialized for sensing envtNS has central division brain spinal cordcrude dissection shows nerves from all sensory peripheral division network of body nervesorgans trace into brainBreakthroughobservation that same general brainorgan of sensationpattern of bumpsgyrigroovessulcifissures on most influential scholarHippocrates 460379 BCbrain surface of every indivfather of western medEnables separating cerebrum into lobesbelieved brain involved in sensationseat of speculate dif localized fns for dif bumpsintelligencethOverall 18not universally acceptedbrain injury has conseqs including deathAristotle 384322 BCheartcentre of intellectbrain communicates w body via nervesBrainradiator to cool blood overheated by the brain has dif identifiable parts that prob have dif heartfns human rational temperament explained by brain operates like machinefollows laws of large cooling capacity of brainnature Views of the Brain During the Roman Empireth19Century Views of the Brainmost important Roman medGreek physicianNerves as Wireswriter Galen 130200 AD1751 Benjamin FranklinExperiments and Hippocratic view of brain fnObservations on Electricitynew understandingGladiator physicianwitnessed conseqs of brain GalvaniBoisReymondmuscles twitch whenspinal injuriesnerves stimulated electrically brain can generate Strong influence by animal dissections favelectricitysheep
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