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HMB265H1 (54)

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Stephen Wright

Pages 29-34 Gene discovery – the genetic approach to understanding any biological property is to find the subset of genes in the genome that influence it - The most widely used approach to gene discovery relies on the detection of single-gene inheritance patterns - Crosses – controlled matings, which may contribute to the recognition of these inheritance patterns; cross a wild-type with a mutant and interbreed those progeny to see if one gene affects the differences in question Genetic dissection – making an inference that the mutant gene would be encoded by a form of the wild-type gene that has been altered by a mutation event; other mutants affecting that trait would be analyzed in the same way Mendel used peas (easy to grow/breed) – used mutants found by others and used in horticulture, instead of searching for pea mutants - Interested in the ways in which the hereditary units that influenced pea properties were inherited from generation to generation - Studied 7 properties – pea colour/shape, pod colour/shape, flower colour, plant height, position of flowering shoot; obtained 2 lines showing contrasting appearances for each one (2 contrasting phenotypes) - Used pure lines – all offspring produced by matings w/in members of that line are identical Phenotype – a form taken by a character Parental generation – the first cross First filial generation (1 ) – the progeny generation Second filial generation (F ) – the progeny resulting from selfing or intercrossing F progeny 2 1 Mendel’s first law (law of equal segregation) – in meiosis, the members of a gene pair separate equally into eggs and sperm Zygote – a fertilized egg, the first cell that develops into a progeny individual - Homozygote – a plant with a pair of identical alleles (A/A) - Heterozygote – a plant in which the alleles of the pair differ (A/a) - Monohybrid – a heterozygote for one gene Genotypes – allelic combinations underlying phenotypes - Homozygous dominant – A/A - Heterozygous dominant – A/a - Homozygous recessive – a/a Monohybrid cross – a cross of A/a x A/a; selfing F in1ividuals can be thought of like this Pages 81-93 Independent assortment – shown by heterozygous gene pairs if two genes are located on different chromosome pairs that will act independently at meiosis
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