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Chapter 9


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Human Biology
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Chapter 9PSYC1211042011Reducing prejudice The Contact Hypothesis oPeople tend to make assumptions about groups with which they have little contact or which they have little knowledge Gives them little motivation to be accurate in their assumptions expectation and generalizations oContact hypothesis proposes that increasing exposure to members of various groups can increase positive evaluations of the outgroup and decrease prejudice and stereotyping oGordon Allport 1954Effect of contact will depend upon the kind of association that occurs and on the kinds of person who are involved Important to understand the characteristics of the situationStatus of the membersRole of the contactPersonality of the interactantsSituations in which the contact takes place For positive Intergroup contact to occurEqual status membersCommon goals Intergroup cooperation Support of legitimate authority government etcoContact hypothesis has fallen out of favour due toConfusion in that some researchers have confused factors that are essential with those that are merely facilitative in Intergroup contact this does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in the contact situation Research tends to focus on when and why contact will result in positive Intergroup attitudes but it does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in the contact situation Does not specify how positive feelings toward an outgroup member in the contact situation can generalize to ones feelings for the whole outgroup oPettigrews Reformulated Contact Theory Suggests thatResearcher need to be aware that individuals bring their own Intergroup experiences and biases and their own personality characteristics to the contact situation Situation must have all 4 Allport conditions as well as Pettigrew additional conditionoPotential to become friends with outgroup members Steps involved in the Reformulated contact Theory Initial contact situation oBegin to see each other in terms of their personalities and characteristics rather than their group membership Decategorization oGroups get together through interacting with outgroup individuals Individuating members occurs and one realizes that they are unique persons and have varying opinions similar to the variability that occurs in ones own ingroup oOutgroup category is now useless as a heuristic Recategorization
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