Film chapter 6 notes.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Innis College Courses
Corinn Columpar

Chapter 6: The Relation of Shot to Shot (Editing) Editing = most widely discussed film technique Today, a typical movie has between 1,000 and 2,000 shots while an action movie has 3,000 or more. I. What is editing? Editing lets the filmmaker decide what shots to include and how they will be arranged After material has been selected, the editor joins the shots, the end of one to the beginning of the other. Cut = most common type of join. It provides an instantaneous change from one shot to another Fade-out = gradually darkens the end of a shot to black Fade-in = lightens a shot from black Dissolve = briefly superimposes the end of a shot A and the beginning of shot B Wipe = shot B replaces shot A by means of a boundary line moving across the scree Editing allow the filmmaker to manipulate time, space and pictorial qualities in ways that shape the viewer’s experience of the film II. Dimensions of film editing 1. Graphic relations between shot A and shot B Shots can display patters of light and dark, line and shape, volumes and depths, movement and stasis. If we put any 2 shots together, we can create some interaction between the purely pictorial qualities of those 2 shots Every shot provides possibilities for purely graphic editing, and every cut creates some sort of graphic relationship between 2 shots Graphic match = when the filmmaker links shots by close graphic similarities (ex: shapes, colors, overall composition or movement in shot A may be picked up in the composition of shot B) Director usually strives to keep the main point of interest roughly constant across the cut, to maintain the overall lighting level and to avoid strong color clashes from shot to shot. Usually, graphically discontinuous editing is more noticeable. 2. Rhythmic relations between shot A and shot B Every shot is of a certain length, with its series of frames consuming a certain amount of time on screen A shot can be as short as a single frame or it can be thousands of frames long -> this choice taps into the overall rhythmic potential of editing The pattern of shot length contributes to the film’s rhythm Flash frames = When a filmmaker cuts to a few frames of pure white (to suggest violent impacts in action films for ex, to mark transitions between segments, or to signal flashbacks in subjective sequences). If all the shots are the same length, then a steady beat is created. If they are longer and longer, the rhythm slows down and if they are shorter and shorter, the rhythm is accelerated. By controlling editing rhythm, the filmmaker controls the amount of time we have to grasp and reflect on what we see. 3. Spatial relations between shot A and shot B Editing can control graphics and rhythm, but it also constructs film space Editing permits the filmmaker to juxtapose any 2 points in space and suggest some king of relationship between them We can start with a shot that establishes a spatial whole and follow this with a shot of a part of this space Alternatively, we can construct a whole space out of component parts Spatial manipulation is very common in film Today’s editors alter space through intra-frame editing. Digital filmmaking makes it easy to combine parts of different shots into a single shot Elements from different shots may be blended in editing. Today, a character can be extracted from one shot and seamlessly pasted into another one. The Kuleshov Effect = (Kuleshov showed the power of editing over the viewer’s sense of space) Says that editing makes viewers assume certain things about the actors on screen, so the cutting is what creates the performance. In addition, the editing pattern strongly suggests the man was reacting to nearby things that he could see. The Kuleshov Effect refers to cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the spectator to assume a spatial whole that isn’t shown screen. Most often, this happens because the filmmaker has decided to withhold an establishing shot. Editing can present spatial relations as being ambiguous and uncertain. 4. Temporal relations between shot A and shot B Editing can control the time of the action presented in the film In a narrative film especially, editing contributes to the plot’s manipulation of the story time There are 3 areas in which plot time can cue the spectator to construct the story time: order, duration and frequency.  Order: The filmmaker can control story chronology though editing (ex: the filmmaker can create flashbacks, which can brutally interrupt present-time action. Another option is the flash-forward, where the editing moves from the present to a future event and then returns to the present) Filmmakers can use flash-forwards to tease the viewer with glimpses of the eventual outcome of the story action.  Duration: Filmmakers use editing to alter the duration of story events Elliptical editing = when an action consumes less time on the screen than it does in the story time. A filmmaker can create an ellipse in three principal ways: 1. When devices like dissolves, fades and wipes signal an ellipse in the action (= common option before the 1960s) 2. We can use empty frames (that characters walk out and back into) to signal an ellipse in the action 3. We can create an ellipse by means of a cutaway or insert (when we show a character doing an action, cutaway to another character accomplishing a task, then cut back to the first actor finishing his initial action) Less common are shot-changes that expand the story time. If the action from the end of one shot is partly repeated at the beginning of the next, we have overlapping editing (which prolongs the action, stretching it out past its story duration. This can also stress the significance of the moment)  Frequency: Sometimes, a filmmaker goes beyond expanding an action to repeat it in its entirety Graphics, rhythm, space and time are at the service of the filmmaker through the technique of editing. They offer potentially unlimited creative possibilities, which is to say they offer a vast menu of choices. Most films we see make use of a particular set of editing possibilities. This menu of choices is called continuity editing III. Continuity editing Between 1900-1910, filmmakers started trying to arrange shots so as to tell a story clearly. They developed a new approach to editing called narrative continuity. The continuity style aims to transmit narrative information smoothly and clearly over a series of shots. This makes editing play a role in narration, the moment-by-moment flow of story information. For continuity editing, filmmakers usually keep graphic qualities roughly continuous from shot to shot. The figures are balanced and symmetrically deployed in the frame; the overall lighting tonality remains constant; the action occupies the central zones of the screen Also, the filmmakers adjust the rhythm of the cutting to the scale of the shots. Long shots are left on the screen longer than medium shots, and medium shots are left longer on screen than close-ups. This gives the spectator more time to take in broader views, which contain more details. By contrast, scenes of accelerated editing favor closer views that can be taken in quickly. 1. Spatial continuity: The 180 system Filmmaker builds the scene’s space around what is called the axis of action, the center line or the 180 line. This axis determines a half-circle, or 180 area, where the camera can be placed to present the action. The filmmaker wi
More Less

Related notes for INI100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.