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LIN100Y1 (8)

Linguistics Lecture Notes and Textbook Notes Combined Week 3

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Week 3 – Phonetics II - Vowels o Created with little obstruction in the vocal tract o Sonorous (consonants are less sonorous) o Tense or lax o Velum may be lowered (allophone vowel) o High acoustic intensity o Always function as the nucleus of a syllable - Creation of a vowel o Height  Raising or lowering of the tongue  High (pit), medium (pet), low (pat) o Backness  Front sounding vowels – put, pot, but  Back sounding vowels – pit, pat, bet o Roundness  Lip rounding  Rounded: boot  Unrounded: beet o Tenseness  Greater or lesser vocal tract constriction  Tense: beat, boot  Lax: bit, put  Lax vowels do not end words (except sometimes schwa [ǝ]) - Diphthongs o Change sound over the course of the vowel  Ie. bait, bite, bite, boat, boy  Formed with a simple vowel and a glide o Considered to be one segment of two separate phones - Canadian English vowels o High front tense: i bead [bid] o High-mid front lax: ɪ bid [bɪd] o Low-mid front lax: ɛ bed [bɛd] o Low front-central lax: æ bad [bæd] o Mid central lax (used in stressed syllables): ʌ bud [bʌd] o Mid-low central lax (used in unstressed syllables): ǝ Budda [bʊdǝ] o High back tense rounded: u booed [bud] o Mid-high back lax rounded: ʊ buddist [bʊdɪst] o Low back tense: ɑ body [bɑdi] - Canadian English dipthongs o Mid front to high front tense: ej bayed [bejd] o Low central-front to high front tense: aj bide [bajd] o Low central-back to high back tense: aw bowed [bawd] o High-mid back to high front tense rounded: oj Boyd [bojd] (or [bɔjd]) o High-mid back to high back tense rounded: ow bode [bowd] - Vowels in world languages o The most common 5 vowels are [a], [e], [i], [o], [u] - Suprasegmentals o “above segments”  Not based on letters o Measured in:  Pitch  Tone (word meanings) o Ie. Mandarin  Intonation (sentence meanings) o Falling pitch at the end = completeness o Rising pitch at the end = incompleteness o Some languages use both tone and intonation, however, many only use one or the other o Ie. English  Loudness
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