Chapter 4 Notes.docx

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Narayan, Chandan

Chapter 4: Phonology- The Sound Patterns of Language  Phonology: system of rules underlying the sound patterns in a language. Phonological Rule: description of when a predictable variation of a particular sound occurs Phonemes and Allophones:  [tal] or [t al+ = ‘tall’ in English mean the exact same thing however in Korean one means ‘moon’ and the other ‘mask’ respectively or beat and plate in Hindu  Note that *d+ and *t+ are phonemes in English /tal/ ‘tall’ isn’t the same as /dol/ ‘doll’  However, Korean has no minimal pairs for /t/ and /d/ o Same sound for Koreans [tal+ ‘foot’ *mandu+ ‘dumpling’  Allophones of the phoneme /t/:  A flap: manner of consonant articulation similar to a stop, but with no air pressure build-up therefore no air release  Examples of phonemes in English, but allophones in other languages: o /l/ and /r/ in English are phonemes, but /l/ is a allophone of the /r/ phoneme in Japanese o In Hawaiian, the there is no /r/ phoneme, /l/ is the closest sound. So when they borrow English words such as Merry Christmas it turns into Meli Kalikimaka (no /s/ phoneme)  Relationship between sounds: o 2 sounds maybe 2 different phonemes or 2 sounds maybe allophones of one phoneme o 2 allophones maybe in complementary distribution with each other or 2 allophones maybe in free variation with each other  Recall two sounds are separate phonemes if you can find a minimal pair that distinguishes them (see other note)  Two sounds are allophones if they are in complementary distribution. Where you find h one sound you don’t find the other. Like p and p .  Analogy: the mustela erminea are animals that change based on the environment (winter or summer). In the summer, they have a summer-brown coat and in the winter they have a winter-white coat. But you never find a winter-white coat in the summer (or vice-versa). They show up in different ways according to their environment (summer or winter). A phoneme is likewise one “animal” that shows up in different ways according to its “environment”- the sound in which it occurs and its position in relation to them  Free Variation: The phenomenon of two (or more) soundh or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning. Like tal and t al Assimilation Rules:  Assimilation is the Process of making one sound more like a neighbouring one with respect to some feature. o Types of Nasal Assimilation:  In English a vowel becomes nasalized when it precedes a nasal consonant (n, ɳ, or m) Ex. Man, and pan (vowel nasalization)  Assimilation of /n/ to the place of articulation of the following consonant  The alveolar nasal /n/ assimilates to the bilabial /m/ (nasal, mouth becomes closed) in the word sandwich: /sænwič/ -> /sæmwič/ (alveolar nasal assimilation)  the /n/ of a word like can (among others) Ex. Can be vs. can go /kæm bi/ vs. /kæɳ go/ (nasal assimiliation) o Palatalization:  Is a common process that results from an interaction between either front vowels or a /y/ glide and a neighbouring alveolar stop consonant, resulting in a fricative or affricate palatal consonant  Eg. d + y -> ǰ could you /kud yu/ -> /kuǰu/ o Voicing Assimilation:  When a nearby consonant assimilates to being voiced or voiceless  Eg.  /s/ follows /p, t, k, f, θ/ = voiceless sounds eg. staffs, bat, etc.  /z/ follows /b, m, d, n, g, ɳ, l, r, ay/ = voiced sounds eg. bibs  /iz/ follows /s, z, ǰ, č, š, ž/ = sibilants  Sibilants: is the name for the natural class of sounds that are “hissing” or “hushing” sounds Dissimilation Rules:  Dissimilation cause two neighbouring sounds to become less alike with respect to some feature  For example, The regular suffixation process gives us pairs like orbit/orbital, person/personal, electric/electrical.  However when an /l/ precedes the ending anywhere in the root, the ending is changed from –al to –ar as a result of dissimilation: single/singular, module/modular, luna/lunar Insertion Rules:  Rules of insertion cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word  Ex. Insert of a vowel between the /l/ and /t/ in the word realtor.  Ex. A voiceless stop is inserted between a nasal and a voiceless fricative hamster becomes /hæmpstr/ Deletion Rules:  Rules of deletion cause a segment present at the phonemic level be deleted at the phonetic level of a word  Ex. In many English dialects, /r/ is deleted when it follows a vowel. E.g. car and yard are pronounced like /ka/ and /yad/ Fronting Rules:  Rules of fronting cause a segment produced in the back of the mouth change to a segment produced at the front of the mouth 
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