Chapters 5 Notes.docx

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Narayan, Chandan

Chapter 5: Morphology What is Morphology?  Is the study of words and parts of words- the underlying rules behind the structure of words  Not all languages have the same morphological rules  Morphology is closely linked to the study of the lexicon. o Lexicon is our mental dictionary; stores information about words and the lexical rules that we use to build them o For each entry/morpheme: It includes information on meaning, pronunciation, syntactic category, rules for expansion of words, making related words, spelling (if literate in language) o Lexicon size is estimated by the ratio of words vs. total words from a random selection of 5 pages or so of a dictionary o Average high school students knows ~ 60,000 words Kids learn ~9words/day What is a Morpheme?  A Morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a word  The form of a word, its suffixes and prefixes, help us determine the syntactic category ( set of words that share a significant number of grammatical characteristics- ex. Verb or noun)  A morpheme is not the same as a syllable, Mississippi has more than one syllable but only one morpheme  Words can be monomorphemic (one morpheme) or polymorphemic (more than one morpheme) o Example: racehorse is p.m. and catapult is m.p. since catapult is not related to the feline (cat)  A word is a “a morpheme or combination of morpheme to which we attach meaning” Free and Bound Morphemes:  Morphemes are either bound (must be attached to another morpheme- trans and mit) or free (can stand alone as a word- cat and drink)  Affixes are bound morphemes, including prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circumfixes  Prefixes come before the word such as dis-, un-, for- etc. while suffixes comes after such as –ment, -ion, etc  An infix is an affix that attachés within a word root. For example in the Inukitut language of Western language the infix –pallia-, this must be inserted into a verb root. Ex. Nungup + pallia + jut = nunguppalliajut meaning “they are ‘gradually’ disappearing”  There is only one basic type of infix in English called the expletive infixation (process by which a words is inserted inside another morpheme) which adds emphasis. Eg. abso- FUCKING-lutely (others include gosh, darn, etc.)  Native English speakers have intuition in where to put the expletive infixation (before the syllable that receives the more stress, won’t fit otherwise). If the first syllable is stressed then it goes after the secondary stress basket-***-ball  The circumfix is the type of affix that surrounds another morpheme. Example, the German, ge—t, which creates the perfective form of certain verbs kommen (to come) Er ist gekommt (he has come)  A clitic is a morpheme that is phonologically dependent on another word but is grammatically independent- eg do not… the not becomes /ɘnt/ the have in could have becoming /ɘ/ (coulda). They are a hybrid between affixes and free morphemes Roots:  A root is a morpheme to which an affix can attach to  A bound root is a non-affix morpheme that cannot stand alone. For example –ceive (receive, perceive, deceive, etc.) it is clearly distinct from permit, denote, etc. but the ceive cannot stand alone as a word, and is thus is a bound root  Productive Rule: a rule that regularly applies in the formation of new words or forms of words. Eg. addition –ion to verbs (transmit +ion), most words in English follow non- productive rules such as lukewarm and unkempt  Interdigitation is a root in which morphemes are added in between each part, for example s-l-m… Moslem, Islam, salaam…. S-l-m meaning peace Derivational Affixation:  Affixes that attach to other morphemes to form new words that are spate entries in our mental dictionary, or lexicon  E.g. The affix –able attaches to verbs, deriving adjective. Thus the affix derives a new word, a new dictionary entry ( not within the same word class for suffixes)  Affix –ity adds to verbs to create nouns. Verb+ ment = noun. Adjective + ness= noun, adjective + ize = verb, adjective + ly =adverb  Derivational prefixes un + happy, dis +enchant, semi + soft although they don’t change the word class the words do not have the same meaning and are in different entries in our mental dictionary  Like suffixes they attach to specific categories. For example ex +noun, anti + noun,, de +verb, in + adjective Word Trees:  Affixes can determine the syntactic category of a word: Words that end in –able are adjectives, words that end in –ish are also adjectives, etc  Steps: o Break it down into morphemes o Find the Root o Compare similar words to see how to add the affixes to the root
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