Textbook Notes (362,802)
Canada (158,054)
LIN204H1 (12)
Chapter 2

Lin204 Chapter 2 Exercise Answers

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Anne- St Amand

Answers to exercises: Chapter 2 1. Identifying morphemes We won’t discuss the words that are clearly lexical and mono-morphemic, that is to say which have lexical meaning and consist of one morpheme only and cannot be divided further. The following words do require some comment in that they consist of more than one morpheme or at least could be argued to do so: . Nowhere could be argued to be a compound consisting of no and where, at least that is how it would have originated; however, it could also be argued that it has, over time, developed into one morpheme, a bit like cupboard has. . Biopic is an interesting one, it looks like a compound consisting of two abbreviated parts, bio(graphical) pic(ture), but since neither bio nor pic is a morpheme of English independently, you could argue that it consists of two ‘cran-morphemes’ rather than two free morphemes, or maybe even that it should be treated as a mono-morphemic word. You may well have developed your own arguments for one of these conclusions. . It’s clearly consists of two morphemes, it and ’s, with it being free. The issue here is whether you think of ’s as an inflection. It does not quite behave like an affix; it shares some properties with a full word, but it is bound. The term used for such ‘inbetween’ elements is usually CLITIC. . Watchable consists of two morphemes, the free watch and the bound able. Watch is a verb and able converts it into an adjective, hence it is a derivational morpheme. . Director consists of the free morpheme direct and the derivational suffix -or. The latter converts a verb into a noun, with the rough meaning of ‘someone who VERBS’; as in instructor or conductor. . Avoids contains the free morpheme avoid and the inflectional affix -s. We know that -s is inflectional because it only adds grammatical information (agreement with the subject). . Beatles is best considered mono-morphemic. It may well have been the result of a word game, playing on beetles and beat, but it wouldn’t be right to see it as the plural of beatle. . Clichés consists of the free morpheme cliché and the bound inflectional affix s. . Focusing is the -ing form of the verb, hence -ing is a bound inflectional affix added to the free morpheme focus. There is also a derivational affix –ing, as in building, but that is not the one used here. . John’s consists of two morphemes; the free lexical John and the bound grammatical s. The behaviour of ’s is different from an affix like the plural s, particularly in that it need not occur on the head of the noun phrase: the president’s dog vs. the president of America’s dog (the dog belongs to the president, not to America) compared to the president of America vs. the presidents of America. Hence ’s tends also to be called a clitic, just like the ’s of it’s. . Years consists of the free lexical morpheme year and the inflectional affix s. . As far as meaning goes, left consists of two parts; LEAVE and PAST TENSE, much like departed does, but we cannot separate the two parts in left. Such units that express two meanings are often referred to as PORTMANTEAUS. Became is also an example of a portmanteau. . There are a large number of free grammatical morphemes in the text: but, a, of, and, the and that. The pronouns, like we and he, can be argued to be grammatical. . The category of preposition is in between lexical and grammatical in some ways. Though it is most commonly listed as a lexical category, as we have done in our book, there are some prepositions, like of and by in this text, that seem to have a grammatical role in that there is no choice between them and any other preposition – they are forced by the environment. All morphemes we have described as affixes here are suffixes. This is quite typical for English; inflectional affixes are always suffixes, but there are some derivational prefixes. 2. Determining constituents If extremely silly can be shown to be a constituent of He always tells extremely silly jokes (and if you apply the tests, we think you will find it can), then extremely silly jokes could still be a constituent. Constituents exist at different levels; two words may form a constituent at the lowest level, but then that constituent may combine with some other constituent. This is in fact what happens here; extremely and silly forms one constituent and then that constituent, extremely silly, combines with jokes to form a constituent at the next level up. Once we have established that extremely silly is a constituent, silly jokes cannot be a constituent since at the lowest level silly has already combined with extremely. 3. Determining constituents When you apply constituent tests, it is important that you apply the tests to the string you are considering and only to the string you are considering. You need to watch this especially when the result is an ungrammatical sentence, possibly indicating that the string is not a constituent, because as a native speaker you won’t really like writing down an obviously ungrammatical sentence and you might accidentally change a little more than you should. When the resulting test is ungrammatical, remember that it is important to ask why that might be. (a) The Telegraph called [David Beckham's new beard] the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. Substitution. The Telegraph called it the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. Sentence fragment — What did The Telegraph call the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus? — David Beckham's new beard. Movement It was David Beckham's new beard that The Telegraph called the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. Co-ordination The Telegraph called David Beckham's new beard and Rooney’s goals the most memorable parts of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. Reduction *The Telegraph called beard the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. Omission *The Telegraph called the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. We know that reduction will not work if more than one part of the string is obligatory and that omission will not work if the constituent as a whole is obligatory. Beard is a single count noun and we know that such nouns need to occur with something that functions as a determiner, such as the or, in this case, David Beckham’s. Similarly, this use of the verb call involves two complements, an object and an object complement, and what we have done here is delete the object. We can conclude, then, that David Beckham's new beard is a constituent of The Telegraph called David Beckham's new beard the most memorable part of England's 3-0 win over Belarus. All but two constituent tests work, and the two that lead to ungrammatical sentences can be assumed to do so because we delete obligatory parts. You may have used David rather than beard for the substitution test and therefore have ended up with a grammatical sentence, but generally with the substitution test, you aim to keep the core meaning – you keep the head of the phrase in. You might have marked the sentence resulting from omission down as grammatical, on a par with sentences like He called ‘don’t go there’ or He called his sister in Burnley, but note that this is a different meaning of call. (b) Giggs scored a truly [sublime goal]. Substitution *Giggs scored a truly it. Sentence fragment — *What did Giggs score a truly? — Sublime goal. Movement *It was sublime goal that Giggs scored a truly. Co-ordination Giggs scored a truly sublime goal and crucial point. Reduction *Giggs scored a truly goal / a truly sublime. Omission *Giggs scored a truly. It does not look like sublime goal is a constituent of this sentence. The only test that gives a grammatical sentence is co-ordination, but note that since we h
More Less

Related notes for LIN204H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.