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MUS111H1 Chapter Notes -Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina, Da Capo Aria, Guillaume De Machaut


Department
Music
Course Code
MUS111H1
Professor
Greg Johnston

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1) Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
a. Date: Medieval, late 12th century
b. Genre: Plainchant
c. Medium: A cappella choir, alternating
soloist and chorus
d. Melody: Unaccompanied, conjunct line
with some expressive leaps and
melismas
e. Texture: Monophonic (single line)
f. Form: 3-part structure (Alleluia-verse-
Alleluia), performed responsorially
g. Context: A movement from the Mass
Proper, sung on feast days for the
Virgin Mary
h. Text: Prayer to the Virgin Mary (text by
Hildegard of Bingen)
2) Anonymous (from the Notre Dame School):
Gaude Maria virgo
a. In the syle of Pérotin (French, 13th
century)
b. Date: Early 13th century, medieval
c. Genre: Organum for three voices
d. Performance style: A cappella (soloists
sing Organum; choir sings chant)
e. Rhythm/Meter: simple pattern of long-
short-long-short in upper voices over
slow-moving bottom voice (tenor)
f. Texture: monophonic chant alternates
with three-part polyphony
g. Context: for feasts of the Blessed
Virgin Mary
h. Rhythm: repetitive long-short patterns
in the upper voices, slow-moving chant
in the bottom voice
i. Text: prayer in praise of Virgin Mary\
3) Guillaume de Machaut: Puis qu’en oubli
a. Date : Mid-14th century (medieval)
b. Genre: Polyphonic chanson
c. Form: 2 sections (A and B) repeated:
ABaAabAB. Capital letter= refrain
(same music, same text). Lowercase
letter = verse (new text).
d. Texture: 3-part polyphony
e. Rhythm: Slow triple meter, with subtle
syncopations
f. Melody: Conjunct, low range; wavelike
lines, with few melismas
g. Harmony: Open, hollow cadences at
phrase endings
h. Text: Poetic rondeau by Machaut
i. Medium: Three voices (instruments
may substitute for voices)
4) Josquin: Ave Maria … virgo serena
a. Date: 1480s? (Renaissance)
b. Genre: Latin motet
c. Context: For devotional services
d. Basis: Chant to Virgin Mary, heard at
beginning only. Most of the motet is
freely composed
e. Rhythm: Duple, with shift to triple,
then back
f. Melody: High vs low voices, singing in
pairs; opening phrase with rising 4th
quotes chant
g. Harmony: consonant; hollow-sounding
cadences
h. Texture: imitative 4-voice polyphony
and homophony
i. Medium: 4 voices, SATB
j. Text: Rhymed poem to the Virgin Mary
5) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: Pope Marcellus
Mass, Gloria
a. Date : Published 1567, late
Renaissance
b. Genre : Sacred choral work, movement
from the Ordinary of the Mass
c. Style: clear text declamation, a
cappella
d. Rhythm: slow duple, weak pulse
e. Melody: Shifts between high- and low-
range voices
f. Harmony: full, consonant harmony
g. Texture: mixed, (homorhythmic and
imitative polyphonic), monophonic
opening
h. Medium: 6-part choir (SATTBB),
originally all male
i. Form: through-composed in two parts
j. Text: Gloria, from the Ordinary of the
Mass
6) Henry Purcell: “Come Away, Fellow Sailors” from
the opera Dido and Aeneas, Act 3
a. Date: 1689 Baroque
b. Genre: English opera
c. Context: presented at a London
boarding school for girls
d. Medium: solo voice and men’s chorus
with small orchestra and continuo
(Baroque period instruments)
e. Rhythm/Meter: Sprightly tempo, in
triple meter; use of Scotch snap dotted
figures
f. Characters: Dido, Queen of Carthage;
Aeneas, adventuring hero; Sailors,
members of Aeneas’ crew
g. Form: Strophic, with orchestral prelude,
solo verse, and chorus
h. Text: Libretto by Nathum Tate
i. Basis: Virgil’s Aeneid
7) Henry Purcell: “Dido’s Lament” from the opera
Dido and Aeneas, Act 3
a. Date: 1689, Baroque
b. Genre: English opera

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c. Context: presented at a London
boarding school for girls
d. Medium: Soprano and small orchestra
with continuo (Baroque period
instruments)
e. Characters: Dido, Queen of Carthage;
Aeneas, adventuring hero; Belinda,
Dido’s maid
f. Rhythm/Meter: Free recitative
followed by a slow aria in triple meter
g. Form: Recitative (secco) and aria in 2
parts (AB, each repeated) over a
ground bass
h. Melody: Recitative with half-step
movement; aria more lyrical
i. Harmony: Based on repeated
chromatic ground bass, stated 11
times
j. Text: Libretto by Nathum Tate
k. Basis: Virgil’s Aeneid
8) Johann Sebastian Bach: Cantata No. 140, Wachet
auf (Sleepers, Awake), No. 1 Choral Fugue
a. Date: 1731, Baroque
b. Genre: Chorale fantasia
c. Texture: Polyphonic and imitative
d. Medium: 4-part choir (SATB), with
strings, double reeds, horn, bassoon,
organ, violin, and piccolo
e. Melody: Sopranos have slow-moving
chorale melody; opening rising line =
watchmen’s motive; long melisma on
“alleluia”
f. Rhythm: insistent dotted rhythm in
orchestra, begun in ritornello 1
g. Harmony: uplifting major key (E flat)
h. Form: Bar form in three parts (A-A-B),
with instrumental ritornellos
i. Text: derived from the New Testament,
Matthew Chapter 25 (the parable of
the ten virgins); music depicts the text
(watchmen, wake-up call)
j. Basis: Chorale (1599) by Philipp Nicolai
9) Johann Sebastian Bach: Cantata No. 140, Wachet
auf (Sleepers, Awake), No. 4 Unison Chorale
a. Date: 1731, Baroque
b. Text: Derived from the New Testament,
Matthew Chapter 25 (the parable of
the ten virgins)
c. Medium: 4-part choir (SATB), with
strings double reeds, horn, bassoon,
organ, violin, and piccolo
d. Genre: Chorale
e. Basis: Chorale (1599) by Philipp Nicolai
f. Form: Bar form in three parts (A-A-B),
with instrumental ritornellos
g. Texture: Three-part polyphonic texture
h. Melody: Tenors sing chorale melody in
unison, set against moving
countermelody in strings
i. Harmony: Bright, major key (E flat)
10) George Frideric Handel: Messiah No. 18, Aria,
“Rejoice greatly”
a. Date: 1742, Baroque
b. Genre: Oratorio, in 3 parts. Part 1 is
the Christmas section; part 2 is the
Easter section, and part 3 tell of the
redemption of the world through faith
c. Context: Handel composed Messiah as
an “Entertainment,” to recoup a Dublin
concert hall’s financial losses. Now,
Messiah is performed often during the
Christmas and Easter seasons
d. Medium: soprano vocal solo and
orchestra (strings and continuo)
e. Text: compilation of biblical verses
from Old and New Testaments. The
text for “rejoice greatly” is from the
New Testament
f. Form: da capo aria (ABA’, with the
second A written out and abridged)
11) George Frideric Handel: Messiah No. 44 Chorus,
“Hallelujah”
a. Date: 1742, Baroque
b. Medium: 4-part chorus (SATB) and
orchestra (oboes, bassoons, trumpets,
timpani, and strings)
c. Texture: varies from homorhythmic to
imitative polyphony; fugal treatment
with overlapping voices
d. Text: compilation of biblical verses
from Old and New Testaments. The
text for “Hallelujah Chorus” is from the
New Testament.
e. Form: Through-composed, but with
recurring refrain: the famous
“hallelujah!”
12) George Frideric Handel: Water Music, Suite in D
Major, Alla Hornpipe
a. First Performance: 1717 (mid-Baroque)
b. Genre: Dance Suite
c. Context: Outdoor performance for a
royal outing on the Thames River
d. Texture: Mixed (homophony and
polyphony)
e. Medium: Orchestra (2 trumpets,
2horns, 2 oboes, bassoon, strings, and
continuo). Timpani were added for this
recording.
f. Rhythm: triple meter in spritely tempo
g. Melody: ascending line with leaps and
trills; second section has descending
minor-scale melody
h. Form: Ternary, A-B-A
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