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MUS211H1 (1)
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portugal and spain text notes.rtf

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Department
Music
Course
MUS211H1
Professor
Jeff Packman
Semester
Fall

Description
Turkey Arabesk - still commercially successful, ambivalent ("cultural intimacy" herzfeld; stokes. republic of love) - something about us as a culture that we value - emotiveness, melodramatic, - several stars (e.g gencebay) own lucrative production companies - still asso. with lower classes - not longer targeted by government cultural policy - many new stars not trained as classical performers (ibriham tatlises) - gay, transvestite, and transexual performers are among the genre's stars - "arabesk debate" (stokes) has spotlighted/challenged various notions of belonging in "modernizing" turkey -stars violating cultural norms, often backlash -makes the public think differently about things- this is an example Iberia:PortugalandSpain Fado and Flamenco Portugal: -pop approx. : 11million - early colonial power - dictatorship from 1926-74 -74 - present = democratic republic - key cities; lisbon, coimbra, porto Portugal as a colonia power - colonial holdings in Asia, Africa, south america(brazil) - *extractive colonization (setting don, farming, cultivation to send back to the empire, mostly men particularly brazil) -Imperial capital moved to Rio de Janiero, Brazil in 1808 (King returns to Lisbon in 1821) -cultural thinking about the empire is affected by a presence in the new world ( napoleon) - heightens cultural exchange between brazil and portugal - up brazils value (thinking about place in the empire, becomes a centre) fado antecedents; Modinha - becomes popular in brazil (2 styles) early c19 -becomes popular in portugal too after - based on portuguese art song form "moda" (sounds very classical and operatic/baroque) - find it way to popular classes/lower classes - adapted to lutes, guitar, violas -2 practices- on street and in burgoise - vertical style another brazillian fado precursor: Lundo - la no largo do se - com candido 1. da silva - based on an african-derived music and dance form (differentiates style) -started among african slaves - eventually was transcribed and found it was to upper classes - becomes fom of salon repertoire via sheet music - again 2 styles become popular in brazil and port. - still classical - rhythm is more syncopated than modish - more "slinky" -key vehicle for transporting music = sailors Fado - loose translation of "Fate" - fatalism: accepting what destiny has in store for you… influence of islamic culture - moorish - precise history is unclear - was never recorded ( lower illiterate classes) - history isn't explored until it reaches popularity, results in discrepincies in historical truth -1830's early references in lisbon ( return of the royal court) - early association with sailors, social marginals in old neighbourhoods of lisbon - combines modish, lundu, fandango (spain), and rural folk musics. Moorish(north african) influence has also been asserted - some assert Brazilian origin - Maria Severa (part Roma Gypsy) first celebrated Fadista c.1835) - (Roma found in polka vernacular) - previous week lecture* Fado Castico "heavy" sounds clip: a case de mariquinha, alfred marceniero (1891-92) -polka like, voice is different - serenade type style, timbre is differentt, not operatic, closed tight vibrato defines fado style angst happening -guitar, ornamented, trills - guitarra portuguesa , taha portuguesa -guitar = viola - like classical guitar - instruments allowing for travel - strophic form * : same melodic and harmonic materials with new text/lyrics each time. (dominant form) - often quatrains in fado - western harmony I-V-I Fado de Coimbra - variacoes em mi menor - (basic theme wiith variations in e minor) artus pareded 1899-1980 - instrumental style/approach - can be voice but often not - asserted ties to troubadours - university students at coimbra - guitarrada - taha portuguesa, viola etc. but as main feature guitarra : tuning dD aA bB ee bb aa coin bra typically tuned a whole step lower 12-string , sounds like harpsichord - vocal style draws on italia
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