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Chapter Khuramiyya

NMC101H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter Khuramiyya : Shia Islam, Mazdak, Zoroastrianism

Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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The Khurammiyya were some of the rural communities that had a distinguished set
of belief disliked by Muslims. They were friendly and claimed to be monotheist yet
dualists. Their dualism involved associating God with both good and evil. This label was
given to such group for the first time in the 8th century in Khurasan when during the
Hashmite movement, one of their missionaries, Khidash, adopted din al Khuramiyya and
the leaders of the Hashmite revolution disowned him. Several literatures on the
Khuramiyya suggest that their belief system resembled Mazdakism, which was an
unorthodox for of Zoroastrianism. Two main beliefs that led scholars to think so were the
laws on women and property. Not only so, but the interesting fact is that there were also
two main ideologies that opposed to Mazdakism, and those were of the “periodic
incarnation of the divine in human beings” and “reincarnation of the human spirit”. This
made me think back to the time we discussed in class about how it takes generations for
people to completely leave their beliefs and adapt new ones. So, perhaps these Kharamiyya
included people who were residues of Mazdakism, which was mixed in with the Muslim
beliefs. Even though they claimed to be Muslims, they didn’t pray or follow and of the
Islamic laws. Their ideology included an aspect of Sufism called Hulul and also an aspect of
Shiism when it came to the belief in Mahdi. The Khuramiyya were found till the 12th century
and the literatures suggest that they were found all over the Middle East and as Far East as
Afghanistan. I guess this suggest how large their population must have been to spread so
far wide. I feel like the only thing that was problematic was their version of “Islam” if that’s
what they ever called it. It reminds me of the Mughal Emperor Akbar’s Din e Ilahi. I’m still
unclear on this topic so I can’t comment any further and would like to know more about it
during our discussions.
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