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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Hicham Saffiedine

Forging a New Synthesis Ottoman Empire Selim III  Empire was constantly engaged in warfare with Austria and Russia o Had multiple fronts to maintain  Nizam-I Jedid (The New Order) o Adopted a pattern of recruitment of Turkish peasant youth from Anatolia o Used modern weapons and French-style clothes o Failed because he was unable to integrate the force into his existing army  Contact with the West o Established permanent Ottoman embassies in several Europeans cities o Ottoman ambassadors were ignorant of the other languages  Had to rely on the goodwill of Greek dragomans (translators)  Janissaries o Viewed the reforms as a threat to their new way of life  Marriage  Trade o Deposed of Selim III and replaced him with a more pliant successor Mustafa IV Nationalism and the Greek Revolt  Nationalistic ideals of an ‘Ottoman’ state which shared a same language and history did not fit to many of its Western states o Serbian revolt 1804 (only achieved objectives in 1830)  Greece (Society of Friends) o Influenced by the French Revolution, and the resurgence of Greek literature o Sought independence form the Ottomans o Revolt broke out in 1821  Ottomans executed the patriarch of the Greek Orthodox church and the chief dragoman o The Eastern Question: Britain and Russia both feared that the other state would use the revolt to gain Ottoman territory o Russia declared war on the Ottoman  Captured Adrianople (the second capital) o Treaty of Adrianople 1829  Russia withdrew to the Danube  Greece was later granted independence Mahmud II  Army: o Used the Janissaries loyalty (which was bought) he moved against the derebeys o Created a new European- style army o 1826 Janissaries were massacred  Administration o 1831 eliminated the timar system o Abolished old offices and created European-style ministries o Founded a gazette o Opened a translation office The Egypt of Muhammad Ali  Mamluk o Effectively replaced the sultan’s representatives o
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