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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC278H1
Professor
Hicham Saffiedine
Semester
Fall

Description
Egypt and Iran in the Late Nineteenth Century The Cromer Years (1883-1907) British interests: - Safeguard the Suez Canal - Restore Egypt’s political and financial stability - Prevent French occupation Lord Cromer (Evelyn Baring): - Colonial administrator - Believed ‘Orientals’ needed to emulate Western lifestyle Financial Restoration: - Expanded Egypt’s agricultural production o Did not want Egyptian textiles rivaling British o Improved irrigation systems  Aswan Dam (1902)  Delta Barrage o Most of the profits went to landowners, not workers - While the budget slowly returned surplus, 25-35% went to repaying debt Government: - Supported the rule of Khedive Tawfig - British advisors were present in each ministry o Paid more than their Egyptian counterparts by Egyptian government - Lord Cromer determined funding priorities - Egyptians felt that they were qualified to govern their own country Education: - Decreased funding for education even during times of economic prosperity - Introduced tuition fees at all levels, limiting access to public education Sudan: - Mahdi rebellion took over Sudan (1881) - Rumors of French forces in southern Sudan reached London (1980) - Joint Anglo-Egyptian entered Sudan (1898) - British government had already drawn up provisions which would make Britain the effective ruling power - Sudanese citizens voted to become independent (1955) Press: - Primary medium of Egyptian opinion - Educated Egyptians found a new voice - The Standard (1900) o Published by Mustafa Kamil (1874-1908)  “The chains of
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