NFS284 Chapter 1 Review Notes

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Nutritional Science
Tom Wolever

Nutrition: Science and Applications Chapter 1 – Food for Health - Human nutrition studies the interaction between human health and food 1.1 Nutrition and the Canadian diet - How healthy is the Canadian diet? o Canadian community health survey (CCHS) is a survey of health information including food intake  Many Canadian adults eat LESS than the recommended number of servings  Many Canadian adults eat MORE than 35% kcal from fat  If you are getting too many of your kilocalories from fat, then there is a higher probability that you are getting too many calories in total o Fat is a very concentrated source of calories  Cancer, heart disease, and stroke are the leading causes of death  Good nutrition can reduce your risk of chronic disease - Convenience has its costs o Convenience foods are more expensive in dollar cost and energy content  Coffee would cost $0.20 and provide 50 kilocalories  Muffin would cost $0.30 and provide 150 kilocalories (including B vitamins and iron)  Turkey sandwich would cost $2.00 and provide 320 kilocalories  Fruit and baby carrots would cost $0.50 and provide 100 kilocalories o Eating more kilocalories than we expend during daily activities will result in weight gain 1.2 Food provides nutrients: Nutrient literacy - Essential nutrients o Essential to human life o Must be provided by the diet o Cannot be biosynthesized in the body in sufficient quantities o If essential nutrient is absent from the diet  deficiency symptoms or illness  death  Deficiency symptoms take a long time to develop  The body has the capacity to store some nutrients - Macronutrients o Carbohydrates o Lipids (dietary fat / fat) o Protein - Amino acids o Compounds that are the building blocks of protein o There are essential and non-essential forms - Energy (Kcalories/Calories/calories/kilojoules) o Fat (lipids) and carbohydrates are sources of energy to support basal metabolism and physical activity o Protein is also a source of energy when present in excess - Starch o Digestible carbohydrate o Source of energy o Found in staples such as rice, wheat, corn, potato, cassava - Triglycerides or triacylglycerol o The major chemical form of lipids in food o An ester of glycerol and three fatty acids - Unsaturated fatty acids o Fatty acids that contain double bonds o Considered to be beneficial to health o Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)  Soybean oil  Canola oil o Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)  Olive oil contains oleic acid (omega-9 fatty acid) - Essential fatty acids o Must be obtained from the diet o PUFA  Linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid)  Omega-6 is more widespread in the diet than omega-3  Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid)  Soybean oil  Canola oil  Flaxseed oil - Long chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids o Synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid, but inefficient o Obtained from the consumption of fatty fish or fish oil supplements o Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) o Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - Saturated and trans fatty acids o Associated with increased risk of disease o Saturated fat is found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, margarines, and shortening o Trans fat is found in high amounts in fats from animals sources - Dietary fibre o Indigestible carbohydrate o Fermented by the microflora of the large intestine o Limited source of energy o Found in whole grains and legumes (e.g., beans, peas, lentils) - Glucose o A carbohydrate that circulates in the blood o A monosaccharide o Source of energy for the brain - Micronutrients o Essential nutrients needed in very small amounts o Vitamins (e.g., A, D, E, K, B, C) o Minerals (e.g., calcium, sodium, iron, iodine) - Vitamins o Organic micronutrients required for metabolic processes - Fat soluble vitamins o Can be stored in the liver and adipose tissue o Not rapidly depleted from the body o When intake is extremely high, then it can have toxic effects o Vitamins A, D, E, K - Water soluble vitamins o Not stored in the body o Vitamin B, C o Rapidly depleted from the body  Except Vitamin B12 which is efficiently conserved o Need to be consumed regularly o When consumed in excess, then it is excreted in the urine - Calcium o A mineral important for bone health - Sodium o A mineral that is widely used in processed food o Overconsumption may raise your blood pressure - Iron o If intake is low, then it may result in anemia - Iodine o If intake is very low, then it can result in goiter F3.1 Phytochemicals in the Canadian diet - Phytochemicals o Substances that are not made by the body  Phytochemicals are substances found in plant foods  Zoochemicals are substances found in animal foods o Not essential but may be beneficial to health  Antioxidants  Health-promoting properties - Functional foods o Similar in appearance to (or may be) a conventional food o Consumed as part of a usual diet o Demonstrated to have physiological benefits o Demonstrated to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions - Antioxidants o Neutralize reactive oxygen molecules o Reduce oxidative damage o Carotenoids  Phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties (and some also have vitamin A activity)  Found in carrots, sweet potatoes, acorn squash, apricots, mangos, tomatoes  Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macula, which is the central portion of the retina  Associated with reduced risk of macular degeneration o Incurable eye disorder that is caused by deterioration of the retina o Leading cause of blindness in adults over the age of 55 years o Flavonoids  Strong antioxidants that protect against cancer and cardiovascular diseases  Found in blueberries, red cabbage, wine, grape juice, chocolate, tea - Cruciferous o Group of vegetables that include broccoli, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, bok choy, cabbage o Named for the cross shape of their four-petal flowers - Alliums
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