September 18 Hobbes Leviathan ch 13 and 17.docx

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19 Apr 2012
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September 18, 2011 Hobbies Leviathan Chapters 13 and 17
Chapter 13: Of the Natural Condition of Mankind, As Concerning Their Felicity and Misery
-nature made men equal in the faculties of body and mind; men all have the ability to claim the same benefit
-intelligence, prudence, experiences is worth more than strength; they lose this faculty when they claim to know all
- from equality of ability arises equality of hope in the attaining of our ends
-if two men desire the same thing which they cannot both enjoy they become enemies
-they must then focus on their own conservation and must destroy the other man as well
-there is no way to secure a man from the power of another man no matter his strength, intelligence etc.
-every man wants his fellow man to look at him with the same value as he looks upon himself
-among men there are three principal causes of quarrel: competition, diffidence, glory
-the first makes man invade for gain, the second for safety and the third for reputation
-when man lives without a common power to keep him under control, he is always in a state of war, of every man against
every other man
-continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short, in this state
-man accuses his fellow men by his actions e.g. locking doors, locking chests, riding armed etc.
-these are the passions of man, and they are not wrong, until there is a law that tells them it is
-no laws can be made until men decide upon the person that shall make the laws
-in the war of every man against every man, without a common power, nothing can be unjust
-the notions of right and wrong, just and unjust do not exist in this state of war without a common power to rule
-where there is no law, there is no injustice; relates to men in society, not referring to his natural state
-it is consequent that there be no property in the natural state, power to oneself, to every man, whatever he can find so long
as he can keep it
-man uses partly his passions and partly his reason to come out of this state
-the passions that incline men to peace are fear of death, desire of necessary things for secure living, and a hope by their
industry to obtain them; reason allows men to make agreements to ensure their passions are in check
-these laws are created and labelled the law of nature (i.e. cannot take one’s own life is a law of nature)
Chapter 17: Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth
-the final cause, end or design of men is the foresight of their own preservation and of a more contented life thereby
-removing themselves from the condition of war creates this contentment
-they will do this by the laws of nature under no common power simply because it is prudent for them to
-the laws of nature without the terror of some power to cause them to be followed, are contrary to our natural passions
-covenants without force are useless
-every man will rely on his own art and skill, powers, etc. to keep safe against all other men
-the strength of men is determined against the strength of his opponent
-when there is no common enemy, men make war upon each other, for their particular interests
-‘for if we could suppose a great multitude of men to consent in the observation of justice and other laws of nature without a
common power to keep them all in awe, we might as well suppose all mankind to do the same; and then there neither would
be, nor need to be, any civil government or commonwealth at all, because there would be peace without subjection
-men are continually in competition for honour and dignity, unlike bees etc. which form colonies and live societally by nature,
are not; amongst men arises envy, hatred and war on these grounds, but not amongst bees etc.
-common good is not different from private good amongst bees et al, and they are inclined to their private and so forth help
the common benefit; men whose joy consists in comparing himself with others can relish nothing that is not private
-men also have reason and find fault with their administration, unlike bees et al who do not; civil war thus occurs when men
think that they can better run the administration than the one who is running it
-covenant and agreement in men is artificial society, not real society without covenants, which bees et al are in
-the only way to secure men from others and from outside forces is for them to confer all their power and strength on one
man or assembly of men unto one will
-the essence of the commonwealth is one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants with one another,
have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall think
expedient for their peace and common defence
-he who carries power is called the sovereign, and everyone else are his subjects and he can attain his power by natural force
or by war subdue his enemies by will, or when men submit to a certain man’s power by will, called commonwealth by
institution and the former a commonwealth by acquisition
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