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PSL201 – Mar 11 – Endocrine 8 Female Reproductive System.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michelle French

PSL201Mar 11 Endocrine 8 Female Reproductive SystemThe Female Reproductive System 3 general characteristics 1 cyclic changes in activity menstrual cycle which is accompanied by regular periodic changes in the secretion of hypothalamic anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones The beginning of each cycle is marked by menstration 2 restricted periods of fertilityovulation is a prerequisite for fertilization and a female is only fertile for a few days that roughly coincide with ovulation 3 limited gamete production ova develop from a fixed number of germ cellsOva and Their Developmentthe process is called oogenesisstart as germ cells called oogonia in fixed number and do not generate morebegins in first 3 months of embryonic life oogonia undergoe mitosis to yield 24 milli clonesthen differentiate into primary oocytesmeiosis I begins but the stops meiotic arrest until just before ovulationat puberty one primary oocyte per month continues meiosis one to yield one secondary oocyte and a first polar bodyonly if the secondary oocyte is fertilized does meiosis II occur o yields an ovum and a second polar bodyovum contains 46 chromosomes 2nThe Menstual Cyclesets the stage for fertilization and pregnancy The Ovarian Cycletwo phases the follicular phase 14 days and the luteal phase 14 days follicular phase is the start on menstruation and ends with ovulationthe luteal phase is the rest of the menstrual cycle The Follicular Phasemost follicles are in the primordial phase but a small fraction begin to develop independent of each otherfollicle cells proliferate into multiple layers around the oocyte and differentiate into granulosa cellsthe primordial follicle is now a primary follicle granulosa cells secrete noncellualr material forming a membrane between them and the oocyte called zona pellucidathe oocyte is provided for through gap junctions between granulosa cells and the oocytefollicles continue to develop and form a fluid filled cavity called an antrumthe follicle is now called a secondary follicle some follicles stop at this pointafter about seven days one follicle the dominant follicle is selected to develop to maturity o remaining follicles undergo atresia and are lostfollicular growth is stimulated by FSH and estrogens secreted by follicles themselves
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