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Chapter 2

POL101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Wave Of Democracy, Carnation Revolution, Longwave

Political Science
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Chapter 2
- Carnation Revolution took place in Portugal when left wing Movimento das
Forcas Armadas overthrew the 48 year old tradition of dictatorship lead by
the Estado Novo
- Democracy in Portugal began a boom for democracy around the world
- First long wave of democracy = 1882 in the USA, but then the first reverse
wave in 1920s with the dictatorship of Mussolini
- Second shorter wave came after WW11 with the Allied victory, newly
independent colonies transitioned to democracy
- Second reverse wave I 1962 with military and one party rule leaving only 2
states in south America democratic
- Third wave = democracy in Portugal
- But after these booms the process of democracy seemed to slow down
because in the 80s the ratio had only increased from 1:4 to 1:3 of democratic
states with most new democracies occurring in microstates with less than 1
million people
- During the third wave many Asian states also turned to democracy triggered
by the revolution in the Philippines
- The second burst of the third wave came in the 90s when communist
Hungary opened its boarders to Austria uniting east and west Germany
- The trend continued in other European communist states
- Similarities between the revolutions : used the limited space provided in a
semiautocratic regime to challenge an unpopular incumbent and rally
disparate opposition forces, citizen vote monitoring efforts, and accurate and
independent tally
How the third wave happened
- most triggered by internal grievances and events: defeat in war (Greece and
Argentina) the death of a dictator (in Spain), the murder of an opposition
leader (Philippines)
- most involved negotiated agreements between regimes and oppositions that
had some equivalence in power
- civil society mobilized and articulated the public pressure for democratic
- brought about electoral process
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