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Chapter 8

POL101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Alberto Fujimori, Social Inequality


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
all
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8
Latin America’s Uneasy progress
- Toledo arrived in Peru in 1994 and ran for elections in 1995 where he
became the principal challenger for Fujimori
- He eventually won in 2001
- He wanted to bring democracy but his core problem was the massive poverty
and inequality
- So he restructures the armed forces, and tried to reform the centralized
system
- But he made several mistakes making him unpopular in the media and
eventually with the people
Democratic Hopes in the Americas
- Although free and peaceful struggle for power through the ballot box has
become entrenched, other factors of democracy are still lacking
o Lack of full rights for all citizens
o Police demand bribes
o Police abuse civilian rights
o State is corrupt
o Judiciary is backlogged
3 regions in the Americas
1) countries where democracy seems deeply rooted in norms and expectations, and
where people express substantial satisfaction with democratic performance and
trust in democratic institutions and leaders
o Uruguay, Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina, Panama, DR
2) countries that ace historic democratic difficulties but now appear to be improving
and stabilizing / average satisfaction
o Mexico, Colombia, Brazil
3) countries with weakest democracies, as judges both by external observers and by
their own peoples, lowest level of democratic support and confidence due to
poverty social inequality and political exclusion / only ¼ satisfied
o El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru,
and Paraguay
The Weaknesses of the Americas
- murderous youth games that lead crime and drug trafficking by giving
evidence to the lawlessness
- weak rule of law
- violence, criminality. Abuse
- poverty, unemployment, inequality,
- corruption of the state social services and criminal justice system
- VECIOUS CYCLE WHERE ONE FACTOR LEADS TO THE NEXT
- Bad mix of non motivational political leaders and dissatisfied people
Securing democracy in the Americas
- deepen democracy institutionally
- deliver broadly distributed material progress
- a) develop fundamentals of economic policy
- b) targeted programs to address poverty
- c) strengthen democratic institutions and representation
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