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Chapter 21

Chapter 21 Notes

Political Science
Course Code
John Haines

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Chapter 21: Terrorism and Globalization
Relationship b/w terrorism and globalization difficult to explain
! Technology created by globalization exploited by terrorists
! Improved ability to work together, share info, reach greater
! Terrorism ! weapon of the weak, rarely creates political change
Terrorism is characterized by use of violence
State violence against citizens [during French Revolution]
Now the use of violence by small groups to achieve political change
! ‘Just-war tradition
! A just cause, proportional violence and use of force as a last resort
! Realists its illegitimate b/c of monopoly on the legitimate use
of political force
! When the US invaded Iraq in 2003
! Did it satisfy condition of just war
! US policies toward terrorist detainees and extraordinary
renditions [handing over prisoners to countries where torture is
allowed] damages its credibility as a global champion for intl rights
and freedoms
An effort to achieve political change for a perceived wrong
! Weakest form of irregular warfare with which to alter the political
! Often lack broader support radical ideas
! Campaigns take decades to achieve meaningful results and the amount
and nature of force used is problematic
! Use of violence by sub-state groups to inspire fear by attacking
civilians and/or symbolic targets, for purposes such as drawing
widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe response,
or wearing down their opponents moral resolve, to effect political
Technology enables the transportation of goods, services and information
! Quick and efficient
! Increasing interconnectedness and homogeneity in intl system
Terrorism: from Transnational to Global Phenomenon

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In late 19th and early 20th they had little influence outside national
Birth of transnational terrorism in 1968
! Expansion of commercial air travel
! Availability of televised news coverage
! Broad political and ideological interests among extremists that
intersected around a common cause
Airport control was non existent before
! Skyjacking suited them well
! Mobility and therefore security
! States willing to give in to save lives of passengers/property
! 5 in 1966 and 94 in 1969
Global terrorist network
! Relationships based on convenience, focusing on weapons, capabilities
and money to advance local political objectives
! Theater of terrorism ! raised awareness
Media coverage “the oxygen that sustains terrorism’’
! Lost interest in repeated performances over time
! New, spectacular attacks
! Cross a threshold of violence
! Acquire weapons of mass destruction
Iranian Islamic Revolution 1979
! Sympathy of Palestine, US symbols and people targeted
Decade of terrorism (1980-1990)
! Suicide bombings, hijackings,
! Trends
! Fewer attacks that were more deadly and indiscriminate
! Increasing sophistication of attacks
! Greater willingness to perform suicide attacks
Source of support disappeared after cold war
! Law enforcement and military forces more effective
! For Transnational Marxist-Leninist groups
Al Qaeda enabled by globalization was growing into global phenomenon
Terrorism: the impact of globalization
September 11, 2001
Al Qaeda- what is it?
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