Total Wars chapter notes

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- Chapter highlights 3 things about the transformation of world politics since 1900s:
1. Transition of Europe from crises to modern industrialized total war
2. End of empires and European imperialism
3. Cold war  political, military, nuclear competition b/w U.S and USSR
- Argument: nuclear weapons has constrained conflict and confrontation  i.e. Pak and
India Γ† after they acquired nuclear weapons, their wars became less violent than previous
Modern Total War
- Start new methods of warfare in WW1 (machine guns)
- Eastern and Western fronts = fighting zones
- U.S enters war in 1917  ξ€šξ‚‘ξ‚‘ξ‚†ξ‚”ξ‚‘ξ‚™ξ€ƒξ€šξ‚‹ξ‚Žξ‚•ξ‚‘ξ‚Γ―ξ‚•ξ€ƒ]`ξ€ƒξ€“ξ‚‘ξ‚‹ξ‚ξ‚–ξ‚•ξ€ƒξ‚‡ξ‚ξ‚„ξ‚‘ξ‚†ξ‚‹ξ‚‡ξ‚•ξ€ƒξ‚Šξ‚‹ξ‚•ξ€ƒξ‚˜ξ‚‹ξ‚•ξ‚‹ξ‚‘ξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚‘ξ‚ˆξ€ƒξ‚’ξ‚‡ξ‚”ξ‚ˆξ‚‡ξ‚…ξ‚–ξ€ƒξ‚•ξ‚‘ξ‚…ξ‚‹ξ‚‡ξ‚–ξ‚›
- Germany agrees to armistice (1918) b/c of U.S helping the other side (have fresh meat...
- Peace Treaty of Versailles failed  ξ‚†ξ‚‹ξ‚†ξ‚Γ―ξ‚–ξ€ƒξ‚–ξ‚ƒξ‚…ξ‚ξ‚Žξ‚‡ξ€ƒξ‚ξ‚ƒξ‚‹ξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚’ξ‚”ξ‚‘ξ‚„ξ‚Žξ‚‡ξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚™ξ‚‹ξ‚–ξ‚Šξ€ƒξ€ˆξ‚—Γ€ξ€ƒξ‚•ξ‚‡ξ‚…ξ‚—ξ‚”ξ‚‹ξ‚–ξ‚›ξ€ƒξ‚ˆξ‚”ξ‚‘ξ‚ξ€ƒ]dc\
united + frustrated Germany
- Effects of Great Depression in 1929 created acceptance of fascist, communist, Nazi parties
o Hitler comes to power in 1933 b/c of political and eco instability
- ξ€‰ξ‚”ξ€ƒξ‚ƒξ‚ξ‚†ξ€ƒξ€…ξ‚”ξ‚‹ξ‚–Γ―ξ‚•ξ€ƒξ‚ƒξ‚–ξ‚–ξ‚‡ξ‚ξ‚’ξ‚–ξ€ƒξ‚–ξ‚‘ξ€ƒξ‚ƒξ‚’ξ‚’ξ‚‡ξ‚ƒξ‚•ξ‚‡ξ€ƒξ€Šξ‚‡ξ‚”ξ‚ξ‚ƒξ‚ξ‚›ξ€ƒξ€‚ Munich Agreement (1938)
o Agree to give Sudetenland of Czech. Γ† Hitler violates this by invading Poland +
rest of Czech.
o 1942  holocaust term enters politics when Nazi start the genocide
The Rise and Fall of Japan
- 1868  Japan comes out of isolation for military & industrial expansion
- 1941  US sanctions Japan economically Γ† Japan attacks Pearl Harbour (which brings US
into war)Γ† Germany and Italy wage war on US in support of Japan Γ† Germany defeated
in 1945
o Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
o Questionable why US dropped it  some say it was to act as warning to Soviets
End of Empire
- End of imperialism marks end of Europe as central to world politics
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