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Chapter

Total Wars chapter notes


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL208Y1
Professor
John Haines

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TOPIC: TOTAL WARS
CHAPTER 3 INTERNATIONAL HISTORY, 1900-90
Introduction
- Chapter highlights 3 things about the transformation of world politics since 1900s:
1. Transition of Europe from crises to modern industrialized total war
2. End of empires and European imperialism
3. Cold war political, military, nuclear competition b/w U.S and USSR
- Argument: nuclear weapons has constrained conflict and confrontation i.e. Pak and
India Æ after they acquired nuclear weapons, their wars became less violent than previous
ones
-
Modern Total War
- Start new methods of warfare in WW1 (machine guns)
- Eastern and Western fronts = fighting zones
- U.S enters war in 1917 ï]`
- Germany agrees to armistice (1918) b/c of U.S helping the other side (have fresh meat...
èï
- Peace Treaty of Versailles failed ïä]dc\
united + frustrated Germany
- Effects of Great Depression in 1929 created acceptance of fascist, communist, Nazi parties
o Hitler comes to power in 1933 b/c of political and eco instability
- ï Munich Agreement (1938)
o Agree to give Sudetenland of Czech. Æ Hitler violates this by invading Poland +
rest of Czech.
o 1942 holocaust term enters politics when Nazi start the genocide
The Rise and Fall of Japan
- 1868 Japan comes out of isolation for military & industrial expansion
- 1941 US sanctions Japan economically Æ Japan attacks Pearl Harbour (which brings US
into war)Æ Germany and Italy wage war on US in support of Japan Æ Germany defeated
in 1945
o Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
o Questionable why US dropped it some say it was to act as warning to Soviets
End of Empire
- End of imperialism marks end of Europe as central to world politics
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