The Return of Authoritarian Great Powers
By: Azar Gat
•The liberal democratic order faces two challenges in the Radical Islam
and the revival of Russia/China.
•Capitalism seems to be entrenched within the world international
oFukyama predicted that modernization leads to democracy and
that the rise of the markets would lead to that.
•Democracy overpowered nondemocratic opponents such as Germany
and Japan was because they were too contingent (independent) from
Chronicle of Defeat not foretold
•Advantage of democracies international conduct was that: it had a
great ability to elicit international cooperation through bonds and
discipline of the global market system.
oHowever, this theory does not work all the time as democracies
DO NOT STICK TOGETHER all the time.
oIn fact, democracies stuck together only in the Cold War. For the
other two World Wars, that was not true.
Part of the reason why China and Russia failed in their bid
in establishing their ideology was because of their lack of
unity as demonstrated by democracies.
oThere was a difference in national interests between France and
Britain. That brought the two sides close to war and the UK was
actively seeking the support of Germany.
•Nazi Germany failed to take over the world due to the lack of supplies
for soldiers BUT the reason for this can be found within Hitler’s
oHitler had suspicions regarding his party and adopted the “divide
and rule” tactic; where there was no trust among the people and
there was always constant backstabbing.
•The inefficiencies that favoritism and unaccountability could have been
offset had there been higher level of “social discipline” for the
•The Soviet Union’s inability to adapt to the newer demands of
information age and globalization had made them fall behind.
Reasons for Communist defeat
•The capitalist loc in 1945 after World War II had possessed greater
economic structure and power than the entire communist bloc.