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POL312Y1 Chapter Notes -Ecologically Sustainable Development, Human Security, Lester B. Pearson

Political Science
Course Code
John Kirton

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The Chretien Years:
-Debate – 1st disappointing continuity – adherence to status quo in a world of radical
change – 2nd isolationist decline – growing gap between Ottawa’s global
commitments and Canada’s declining capabilities – Cohen 1995 – Chretien’s instinct
‘to stay home and cultivating one’s own garden’ – PD – discarded multilateralism in
favour of regional issues – reliant on goodwill of much more powerful US and
confining role in G7 – end of Chretien era – Canada as a ‘fading power – post-9/11
brought new challenges – 3rd school – Canada’s rise to global leadership –
transformation into a more fully engaged global leader – view acquired additional
adherents after winning Quebec referendum, fiscal deficit disappeared and Axworthy
as for minister – EXPANSIVE GLOBAL LEADERSHIP – 4 broad trends define
transformation – 1. Geographically – historic focus on Atlantic and commonwealth
was supplemented by a shift to Asia-Pacific region and Americas – 2. Functionally –
earlier emphasis on Pearsonian ‘peace and security’ and Trudeau ‘economic growth’
replaced by new outward-oriented priority on trade, sustainable development, human
security, and the promotion of Canadian values and interests abroad – for pol more
multi-faceted, forceful and interventionist – institutionally – largely abandoned
tradition support of UN – more plurilateral int’l institutions – supported by victory in
Quebec referendum, Ottawa’s fiscal surplus, second majority mandate – Axworthy –
R2P and Landmines convention – soft power and human security – THE CAUSES
changes – end of cold war, intense globalisation, 9/11 – US share of G7 capabilities
declined – decline of US dollar – rise in Canadian GDP – changes in polarity and
processes – non-state actors and natural forces
-Doctrines – CANADA IN THE WORLD 1995 – 1st premise – leadership among open
advanced societies as power dispersed and more economically defined – 2nd premise
– geographic advantage as new poles of power emerged in Asia – 3rd premise –
bicultural and multicultural personality – privileged access to Anglophone and
francophone worlds – 4th premise – opportunities in summitry – 5th premise –
multilateral mediatory role – based on history as non-colonising and effective int’l
mediation – 3 priorities – 1. Promotion of prosperity and employment through trade –
2. Promotion of global peace to protect Canada’s security – 3. Projection of Canadian
values and culture – 4th de facto priority – ecologically sustainable development –
economy came first again, centred on employment and trade – CNR emphasis on
projecting rather than protecting values, which were LI – DEFENCE WHITE PAPER
1994 – ‘multi-purpose, combat-capable’ sea, land and air forces, able to ‘fight
alongside the best, against the best’ – priorities – 1. To protect Canada – 2.
Cooperate with US – 3. Participation in peacekeeping and other multilateral
operations – AXWORTHY DOCTRINE 1996 – soft power – priorities – antipersonnel
mines, small arms, children’s rights, int’l human rights, peace building – some PD
elements – living in a world dominated by US – LI components – emphasis on
building int’l norms – CNR elements dominated – creation of new norms suggested
Canada could and should modify world order – DIALOGUE REPORT 2003 – CNR –
putting security first – advantages – diverse population, geography, economic
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