Charles Chasteen – Born in a Blood & Fire Chapter 3
the most remarkable thing about colonial rule was its stability.
No one saw an imperial collapse coming
the fighting of Latin American independence dealt a death blow to the caste
system and honour to previously unrespected mix race types.
Patriot leaders faced great challenges in finding something that united African
slaves with creole elites, mestizo and native populations.
It was during this time that liberalism and nationalism were born in latin America
The sale of high office was a common practice around this time which led to rule
by incompetent people
Spanish America was de facto indcpendent when napoleon imprisoned the king of
Portugal maintained a friendly relationship with England unlike Spain
The ideas of the French revolution were highly seductive and could not be hidden
from Spanish America for ever. Challenges to the idea of the divine right of kings
and a firm belief in constitutionalism are the main ideas one is talking about with
the mention of French revolutionary ideas.
When Portugal refused to go to war with England they were invaded by napoleon.
The royal family fled to brazil.
Napoleons brother joseph was named king of spain after the forced abdication of
King and his son.
The people of brazil were delighted to have the royal family in rio de janiero.
The portugese king eventually went back after napoleon was vanquished from the
Around the beginning of the 1800s there was already a bitter rivalry between
peninsulares and creole elites competing for social dominance.
One of the first independence campaigns happened in mexico with a key figure
being the Creole parishioner Father Hidalgo who helped shape a movement under
the banner of Americans vs Europeans.
This movement was more indigenous then creole and scared those in power.
Hidalgo was captured and executed.
Tupac Amaru II – greatest indigenous rebellion happened in 1780s
it happened in peru
whereas uprisings in peru and mexico were originally bottom up – indigenous
make up. The uprisings in Venezuela and Argentina were more shaped by the
During wartime the term americanos was a broad as possible in order to
maximize the amount of people who would rally behind the cause. This term
however would have a much narrower definition once the creole elite had a strong
foothold on their power.
The strategy of wartime inclusion of the general population under the term
americanos is referred to as nativism by chasten