Commune of 1871. This and subsequent German editions (1883 and 1890) were entitled the
Communist Manifesto. In 1872 the Manifesto was first published in America in Woodhull & Claflin’s
The first Russian edition of the Manifesto, translated by Mikhail Bakunin with some distortions,
appeared in Geneva in 1869. The faults of this edition were removed in the 1882 edition (translation
by Georgi Plekhanov), for which Marx and Engels, who attributed great significance to the
dissemination of Marxism in Russia, had written a special preface.
After Marx’s death, the Manifesto ran into several editions. Engels read through them all, wrote
prefaces for the 1883 German edition and for the 1888 English edition in Samuel Moore’s translation,
which he also edited and supplied with notes. This edition served as a basis for many subsequent
editions of the Manifesto in English – in Britain, the United States and the USSR. In 1890, Engels
prepared a further German edition, wrote a new preface to it, and added a number of notes. In 1885,
the newspaper Le Socialiste published the French translation of the Manifesto made by Marx’s
daughter Laura Lafargue and read by Engels. He also wrote prefaces to the 1892 Polish and 1893
This edition includes the two earlier versions of the Manifesto, namely the draft “Communist
Confession of Faith” and “The Principles of Communism,” both authored by Engels, as well as the
letter from Engels to Marx which poses the idea of publishing a “manifesto,” rather than a catechism.
The Manifesto addressed itself to a mass movement with historical significance, not a political sect.
On the other hand, the “Demands of the Communist Party in Germany” is included to place the
publication of the Manifesto in the context of the mass movement in Germany at the time, whose
immediate demands are reflected by Marx in this pamphlet. Clearly the aims of the Manifesto were
more far-reaching the movement in Germany at the time, and unlike the “Demands,” was intended to
outlive the immediate conditions.
The “Third Address to the International Workingmen’s Association” is included because in this
speech Marx examines the movement of the working class manifested in the Paris Commune, and his
observations here mark the only revisions to his social and historical vision made during his lifetime
as a result of the development of the working class movement itself, clarifying some points and
making others more concrete.