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Political Science
Arnd Jurgensen

Realism Basic Realist Assumption: - Pessimistic view of human nature - International conflicts are ultimately resolved by war - High regard for national security and state survival - Skepticism that there can be international political progress comparable to that in domestic political life Power Politics: - An arena of rivalry, conflict, and war between state in which the same basic problems of defending the national interest and ensuring the survival of the state, and the security of its people Anarchy: - The international system is anarchy o No higher, overarching authority - Level of analysis: the interactions between states Classical Realism Thucydides: - Inevitable competition and conflict between ancient Greek city-states - Peloponnesian War: Athens (great power) vs. Melos (minor power) o Unequal states Machiavelli: - Political leaders must be powerful (Lion) and deceptive (Fox) to defend the interests of their state - Leaders should engage in pre-emptive war Hobbes: - ‘State of war’ o Each man for their own o Escape from this is a creation of a sovereign state - Security Dilemma o The achievement of personal security and domestic security through the creation of a state is necessarily accompanied by the condition of national and international insecurity that is rooted at the anarchy of the state system  No permanent of guaranteed peace between sovereign states Hans Morgenthau: - Four (Six) Principles of Political Realism 1. Politics is rooted in an unchanging human nature which is self-centered and self-interested. 2. Politics is an ‘autonomous sphere of action’ and cannot therefore be reduced to morals 3. The ethics of international relation is very different from private morals 4. Imposed to the idea of specific nations imposing their ideologies on others Neorealism Th
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