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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Republic Book I Defining What is justice? Why should we be just? ―aporia—a deadlock, where no further progress is possible and the interlocutors feel less sure of their beliefs than they had at the start of the conversation‖ ( snotes) Cephalus ( business man)- Speaking the truth and paying debt ( 331 c) Socrates rebuttal – ― sane man lends weapon to friend and then asks for it them back when he is out of mind, the friend shouldn’t return them, and wouldn’t be acting justly if he did‖ ― Nor …tell the whole truth to someone who is out of his mind‖ ( 331c) Polemarchus ( quotes Simondes)- treat friend well and enemies bad ( 332 d) Socrates rebuttal – following that definition, ―justice seems to be some sort of craft of stealing, one that benefits friends and harms enemies‖ ( 332b) After this rebuttal , Polemarchus still believes ― I still believe that to benefit one’s friend and harm one’s enemies is justice‖ ( 332 b) Socrates reply- who are friends ? ― those a person believes to be good and useful to him or those who actually are good and useful , even if he doesn’t think they are , and similarly with enemies? ( 334 b~c) ― one loves those one considers good and hates those one considers bad and harmful( 334 c) ― Then Socrates adds, ― But surely people often make mistakes about this,… useful when aren’t,… mistake about enemies‖ ( 334 c) It comes to a conclusion that , following Polemarchus definition it is ― it’s just to do bad things to those who do no injustice‖ ( 334 d) Then , Polemarchus( politician) adds more to defining ― friend‖ ― who is believed to be useful l and is useful is a friend ; … who is believed to be useful but isn’t, is believed to be a friend but isn’t. And the same for the enemy ( 334 e ) Good person= friend Bad person= enemy Socrates concludes that his will mean ― good person will be a friend and bad one an enemy‖ ( 335 a) He then confirms whether Polemarchus means ― just to treat well a friend who is good and harm an enemy who is bad‖ – ( 335 a) However, Socrates continues to rebut by first stating that ― when they(humans) are harmed they become worse in human virtue ― and that ― justice ( is) human virtue‖ ( 335 c) This is agreed by Polemarchus Final conclusion on this definition – ( 335e) Thrasymachus enters the discussion He defines justice as ― nothing other than the advantage of the stronger ― ( 338 c) He explains, ―some cities are rule by a tyranny, some by a democracy , some by an aristocracy… each city this element is stronger , namely, the ruler?...each makes laws to its advantage… just for their subjects, punish anyone who goes against this lawless and unjust… same in all cities, the advantage of the established rule...., the advantage of the stronger ― ( 338d~339 a) And that injustice is ― stronger, freer and more masterly than justice‖ and ― justice is what is advantageous to the stronger while injustice is to one’s own profit and advantage‖ ( 344c) ―challenge was to define justice; now justice must be defined and proven to be worthwhile‖( snote) Socrates rebuttals and Conclusion on the term Justice ―rulers in sometimes in error as to what is best for themselves‖ ( 338d) and continues to line 339e. ― no one in any position of rule , insofar as he is a ruler, seeks or orders what is advantageous to himself , but what is advantageous to his subjects; the ones of whom he is himself the craftsman.‖ ( 342 e) – gives the example of doctor and patient (342 d) ―Does each thing to which a particular function is assigned also have a virtue?‖( 353 b) ―Function of soul?‖( 353d) - ― justice is a soul’s virtue, and injustice its vice?‖, ― just soul and a just man will live well , and an unjust one badly‖ ( 353e) ― injustice is never profitable than justice‖ because ― just person is happy and an unjust one wretched‖ ( 354 a) Therefore , Plato, through Socrates, states that justice is one’s soul’s virtue( why be just) , but does not define what justice is… Book II Glaucon, with the help of Adeimantus, that justice itself makes its possessor happier. Socrates does not challenge this until the end of Book IX. Firstly, he moves the debate from individual justice to political justice. He constructs an ideal/completely good polis/city- the kallipolis; city completely virtuous and just (352d~354a) Glaucon- Gyges of Lydia ― setting inward , he became invisible; if he turned it outward, he became visible again..…he seduced the king’s wife, attacked the king with her help, killed him, and took over the kingdom‖ ( 359d~360b) -If
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