Chapter summaries. Thorough notes on Leviathan Readings

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Janice Stein

Part 1 of Man Chapter 1 Of Sense 1. Thoughts are either singly or train (dependant on other) o Singly are products of bodily senses Representation or appearance o Object is an body which exists without us o We all have different perceptions of objects because we all perceive through senses o Therefore many appearances of one object --subjectivity o Relative reality .. Limited reality/knowledge Reality is limited to what we can sense Reality is nothing more than appearances 2. All conceptions of man are derived from his senses. There rest are from that original 3. Cause of senses o External body or object in nature presses organ o React with body to create a feeling o Presseth our organs diversely Harsh interaction with nature 4. Sensible qualities lay in object that causes them o Object itself is seperate from the appearance we create of it o Sense caused by motion of external thing o Motion causes motion o Aristotle's position Aristotle's essentialism: objects in the external world have a certain "essence" that gives them the qualities that humans experience through their senses. For example, when we see a red apple there is an inherent "redness" to the apple that is transmitted to us through sense. Thus, there is some objective essence or meaning to objects that we experience. Contrary to this, Hobbes argues that our sensory experience is entirely subjective. He argues that to speak of any sort of essence like "redness" in the absence of an object is absurd, since we can only experience that which we can sense. Following from this, what gives an object meaning is not some essence inhering in an object, but our own subjective experience of external bodies. Chapter 2 Of Imagination 1. When a boy is in motion it moves until something hinders it, this hindering cannot stop if absolutely but over time through continuos hindering o Waves in water after wind stops blowing 2. Motion in internal parts of man continues after external thing presseth upon him o i.e dreams 3. Greeks: fancy, appearances, imagination 4. Imagination = decaying sense 5. Imagination of past is obscured and made weak as the voice of man is in noise of the day 6. Time has influence on imagination 7. Decaying sense = memory o Imagination = memory 8. Compounded vs simple imagination o Compounded: 2 senses = horse + man = centaur o Simple: just 1 sense = man 9. Collection of memories = experience 10.Emotions produce a bodily physical reaction whose remnants carry through in dreams 11.No imagination in dreams --> no dreams --> just agitation 12.In silence of sense then are our waking thoughts ????? 13.Imagination, over time, is the same as "memory." 14.Memory of things sensed from the outside world is defined as "experience," while sensation of internal movements of the human body is called a "dream" when one is asleep, or a "vision" or "apparition" when one is awake. Equates beasts with men o Both have faculty of imagination o And thus the faculty to use imagination to interpret signs and words o Ability to understand 15.But what makes man different is the ability to understand not only his will, his conceptions, and thoughts but understand others. 16.Ability to produce causes from effects and effects from causes.... Chapter 3 1. Consequence: succession of one thought to another = mental discourse 2. 2 types of trains of thoughts o Unguided, without design and inconstant(no passionate thought to govern and direct , wandering thoughts) o Regulated/guided thoughts Regulated by some desire an design Two types: one when of an effect imagined we seek the causes, or means that produce it When imagining anything whatsoever we seek all we can o with it, when we have it (Quality of MAN only not other species) o Thoughts when governed by design Are seeking, faculty of invention Hunting out causes and effects Remembrance: calling to mind former actions (re-conning) Sometimes a place is determined but the way to get there is not Sometimes we want to know the event of an action and so we infer to past similar events Prudence / Method of Induction Cant observe all experiences possible so usually such guesses of cause and effect relations = fallacious Therefore person with most observing experience = most likely to be correct Sign Event antecedent of the consequent an sometimes the consequent of the antecedent More prudence = more ability to predict and identify signs Prudence doesn't distinguish man from beast Prudence = presumption of future based on experience from the past Degree of uncertainty due to it being grounded in experience only o "For besides sense and thoughts, and the train of thoughts, the mind of man has no other motion, though by the help of speech and method the same faculties may be improve to such a height as to distinguish men form all other living creatures" Whatever we imagine is finite No idea or concept of infinite When we say infinite we mean: we are not able to conceive the ends an bounds of the thing conception but our own inability Chapter 5 Of Reason and Science - Definition of Reason: o Reckoning (like in addition, subtraction etc) o reckoning (that is, adding and subtracting) of the consequences of general names agreed upon for the marking and signifying of our thoughts; I say marking them, when we reckon by ourselves; and signifying, when we demonstrate or approve our reckonings to other men - Use of Reason o The use and end of reason is not the finding of the sum and truth of one, or a few consequences, remote from the first definitions and settled significations of names; but to begin at these, and proceed from one consequence to another. For there can be no certainty of the last conclusion without a certainty of all those affirmations and negations on which it was grounded and inferred. Causes of absurd conclusions 1. the want of method (beginning not at settled definitions) 2. Confusion of terms due to lack of settled decisions 3. Giving of names of bodies to accidents; or of accidents to bodies; as they do that say, faith is infused, or inspired; when nothing can be poured, or breathed into anything, but body; and that extension is body 4. Giving of the names of the accidents of bodies without us to the accidents of our own bodies; as they do that say, the colour is in the body; the sound is in the air etc. 5. Universal claims 6. giving of the names of accidents to names and speeches 7. Use of metaphors, tropes, and other rhetorical figures, instead of words proper. 8. Names that signify nothing - Since definitions, truth, first-principles and reason cannot be founded upon natural science, general consensus or a particularly enlightened person, Hobbes argues that there must be some agreed-upon judge or body that establishes such things. - Truth = consent Chapter 6 Of the Interior beginnings of voluntary motions passions an the speeches by which they are expressed 2 sorts of motions in animals o Vital (begun in generation and continue without interruption through their whole life ..course of blood, the pulse... Etc to which motion there needs no help of imagination o Animal motion: voluntary motion,, to speal, move limbs... In such manner as is first fancied in our minds Motion in orgas, interior parts of body cause by the action of the things we sense Fancy = relic of sense Imagination = internal beginning of voluntary motion Hobbes considers the causal factors that precipitate voluntary motions, the motions that eventually progress into directed actions.
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