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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Melissa Levin

I hope this helps Good luck on the exam everybodyRyanSEPTEMBER 13 READINGUsing and abusing the Concept of the Third WorldRandall y Notions of third world no longer helpful except for geopolitical analysis y Used to be helpful in a number of contexts but generally carried a connotation of otherness or backwardness y Need to move beyond third world generalization and consider countries in their own right What was the rationale for the concept of the Third WorldAssociated it with the experience of the consequences of colonialism economic dependenceMarked as postcolonial statesThese nations had political features in commonpredicament of economic dependency and backwardnessInstability conflict corruption military intervention Why is this rationale no longer validThere are issues with lumping together a range of societies for the purpose of comparative politics Anthropological viewpoints argued with this tendency to assume homogenietythe nature of the colonialism experienced by these countries variedimpact of colonialism no longer a major determining roleAfter collapse of soviet union referred to as second world does a third world make senseCan replace firstsecondthird world with NorthSouthFormer Third world countries no longer seem to fit the defining criteriaA third World type category draws attention to the major axis of economic and political inequalityunequal access to the benefits of globalisationCan be seen as a worldwide social category rather than a geographical oneThe term Third worldCulturally polarising discourse The value of the third world in comparative politicsPreviously in political science comparisons were made between the state and only a few other major players ie USEuropean countries and to bring the excluded countries into consideration it was easier to bring them all under a unifying third worldBut knowledge about individual countries economies and politics are now studied domestically and abroad thus we now know more about the process of politics within independent third world statesThere have always been important political differences between these third world countriesSince precolonial times they have each had different political paths In conclusionThe term third world still has some use in geopolitical analysiscould use a redrawing of the boundaries though old members no longer includedThe term point out economic imbalanceBut in the field of comparative politics the term third world is no longer useful Represent a generalisation of homogeniety THSEPTEMBER 20 READING Does Growth Cause Structural Transformation Evidence from Latin America and the CaribbeanDawn Richards Elliot Explores the hypothesis the line of causation between growth and structural transformation is specific to a given country using Granger causality testsa statistical hypothesis test for determining whether one time series is useful in forecasting another challenges prevailing theoretical wisdom that asserts a universal noncountry causality structural transformation and growth which causes which is theoretically unresolved and empirically unsupported if there is one line of causation then the contemporary and historical approaches of offering a standard set of policies for developing countries is correct If on the other hand the presumed universality of causation is a myth then such policy approaches are inappropriate at best Literature Review y strucutral transformation refers to a reduction in a nations dependency on agricultural commodities in favor of manufacturing ones universal acceptance that such transformation is related to economic development or growth y what remains ambiguous is whether the transformation is caused by income growth or whether the transformation causes increases in income second hypothesis that structural transformation causes growth these theories were able to justify a state push for structural transformation based on the existence of idle capacity capacity that is potentially available but not currently being usedpresence of unused capacity together with insufficient raw materials or skilled labour When idle capacity exists a firm can take on an incremental order without increasing the fixed costs y declining population growth rates in the developed nations and the arguably signigicant income and price inelasticity of primary goods made this policy essential for developing nations in pursuit of growth y Chenerystructural transformation affects the rate of growth and is necessary to sstain continued growth effectively summarizes the common theme of structuralism Structuralismfocuses on specific barriers to development and how to overcome theman economic policy that blames chronic inflation primarily on foreign trade dependency insufficient local production especially in agriculture and political struggles among entrenched vested interests over government contracts y Dietz and James urged structuralists to include in their analyses a role for technology and selective import protection y role of technological changes first analyzed by Posner and Vernon and postKeynesian analysis y proposal that selective protection may be used to encourage the development of industries that are subject to returns to scale y these new associates the neostructuralists have modernized at the same time retaining hat structural transformation causes growth y policymakers across Latin America and the Caribbean have unanimously abandoned the structuralist proposal by embracing the neoliberal alternative who argue in favor of the netpositive beneits for a specialization pattern driven by the principle of comparative advantage y with free markets and privatized industries the resulting expectation is that exports will pave the way for economic growth or what is now popularly called exportled growth y regarding issue of causality implication is that exports will stimulate growth which will over time cause structural transformation y empirical tests have largely been restricted to establishing positive correlations between exports and growth and structural transformation and growth however observances of correlation do not guarantee the implied causation y however tests providing such correlations persis dominating empirical anlysis used to support neoliberalism conclusions drawn from these are ofered as evidence in support of the exportled policies that favour free marketshowever these results recieve little support when subjected to causation analysis y Of all the causality analyses performed few provide general noncountryspecific evidence for the hypothesis that exports cause growth and its implication that exports
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