POL208Y1 Course Readings.docx

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Political Science
Jean- Yves Haine

POL208Y1 Course ReadingsSeptember 20Ch1Globalization the widening deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectednesso Hyperglobalists argue that it is undermining the sovereign nation stateo Sceptics reject the idea of globalizationo Transformationalists argue that both are over exaggerated TNCs account for 70 of world trade and 80 of international investment due to globalization Transnational problems require global solutions or regulations such as climate change Transnational issues has led to international organizations that regulate like the IMF and the WTOThe concept of globalization implies radical shifts in social and economic organization Power is increasingly organized and exercised from great distancesGlobalization is to be distinguished from internationalization and regionalization One of the problems with a sceptics view on globalization is that it tends to view globalization in purely economic terms Globalization affects all areas of social activity including Economic military legal ecological cultural and socialGlobalization is not global but rather asymmetrical Rich countries are more globalized than poor ones like the subSaharan countriesInequality is a part of globalization Violence is a part of globalization whether it be as imperialism or the war on global terrorThe Westphalia constitution of order o The recognition that rulers will rule within their own borders without outside influence sovereigntyo Autonomy the principle of self determination and self governanceThere is an evolving global governance as the line between domestic policy and foreign policy isblurred Global governance sees private actors like NGOs attempt to influence Modern communication technologies allow for a bigger more mobile transnational civil society Power in the global system does not belong solely to states but is distributed among states and public and private actors September 25 Chapter 5 Realism The theoretical approach that analyzes all international relations as the relation of states engaged in the pursuit of power Realism cannot accommodate nonstate actors within its analysis Emphasis on the ubiquity of power and competitive nature of politics among nations Acts as a manual for maximizing the interests of state in a hostile environment which as lead it to be the dominant tradition todayMachiavelli thought to be one of the first realists Doctrine of Reason of State the practical application of realism Survival of state is never guaranteed because using war is a legitimate instrument of statecraftRealism questions the idea of universal moral principles and therefore cautions state leaders against sacrificing for the notion of ethical conduct Furthermore political leaders should distance themselves from traditional moral values that are associated with caution piety and greater good of mankind as a whole Morality accorded to political necessity Dual moral standard A moral standard at the individual level for citizens within a state and a moral standard for states3 CORE elements of realismo Statism Values and beliefs of a community are protected by stateCriticism flawed both on empirical and normative grounds inability of states to respond to global problem such as famines etc o Survival primary objective of all states is survival this is the supreme national interest to which all political leaders must adhereAre there no limits to what actions a state can take in the name of necessityo Selfhelp States cannot assume other states will come to their aidA state of anarchy exists outside state borders on the level of international politics because there is no overarching central authority Core national interest of states is survival often through the use of exercising power which is traditionally described as military power Realism cannot account for regional integration humanitarian intervention and security communityCritics argue that the state is in decline relative to nonstate actors Classical Realismo Machiavelli the prince o Thucydides The Peloponnesian Warpower politics as a law of human behaviour fundamental aspects of humannature o The behaviour of the state is recognized as being a reflection of the citizens who live in the stateo Patriotic virtue us required for communities to survive an idea that predates sovereignty Structural Realism o Rousseau the state of war o Not human nature but the anarchical system which forges jealousy suspicion and insecurityo Anarchy leads to the logic of selfhelp which states seek to maximize security o The selfhelp system encourages states to maximize their relative power positiono Interested in having a ranking system in order to count the great powers The number of great powers dictates the structure of the international system EG Cold war was bipolar the most stable o The world is condemned to a perpetual great power competitionNeoclassical Realism o Zakaria from wealth to power o The account structural realism provides is incomplete It needs to be supplemented with better accounts of unit level variables such as how power is perceived and how leadership is exercised Hobbes says we trade our liberty for security and once security has been guaranteed then civil society can begin
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