Total Wars chapter notes

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Political Science
John Haines

TOPIC: TOTAL WARS C HAPTER 3I NTERNATIONAL H ISTORY ,1900-90 Introduction - Chapter highlights 3 things about the transformation of world politics since 1900s: 1. Transition of Europe from crises to modern industrialized total war 2. End of empires and European imperialism 3. Cold war political, military, nuclear competition bw U.S and USSR - Argument: nuclear weapons has constrained conflict and confrontation i.e. Pak and India after they acquired nuclear weapons, their wars became less violent than previous ones - Modern Total War - Start new methods of warfare in WW1 (machine guns) - Eastern and Western fronts = fighting zones - U.S enters war in 1917 Z]< Z Z - Germany agrees to armistice (1918) bc of U.S helping the other side (have fresh meat... Z ZZ - Peace Treaty of Versailles failed ZZ ]@? united + frustrated Germany - Effects of Great Depression in 1929 created acceptance of fascist, communist, Nazi parties o Hitler comes to power in 1933 bc of political and eco instability - Z Z Munich Agreement (1938) o Agree to give Sudetenland of Czech. Hitler violates this by invading Poland + rest of Czech. o 1942 holocaust term enters politics when Nazi start the genocide The Rise and Fall of Japan - 1868 Japan comes out of isolation for military & industrial expansion - 1941 US sanctions Japan economically Japan attacks Pearl Harbour (which brings US into war) Germany and Italy wage war on US in support of Japan Germany defeated in 1945 o Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki o Questionable why US dropped it some say it was to act as warning to Soviets End of Empire - End of imperialism marks end of Europe as central to world politics
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