March 21st.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Rodney Haddow

March 21 st Keith Banting, “Dis-embedding Liberalism? The New Social Policy Paradigm in Canada,” Summary by section OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development We are in danger of dis-embedding liberalism Postwar Paradigm - Social and economic strategy of this era described as embedded liberalism - “gov’ts asked their publics to embrace the change and dislocationthat comes with liberalism in return for the promise of help in containing and socializing the adjustment costs” - High and stable employment - Education system : equality of opportunity - Health insurance - Income transfer programs ( Employment Insurance, pension, disability, social assistance, etc) PURPOSE: economic security & to protect citizens from universal risks with a market economy. - Aimed at the entire population not just “the poor”-> security associated with concept of social rights and universality - Redistribution from the rich to the poor was a secondary goal. (still important as in 1980 the levels of child poverty and inequality in Canada was very high relative to more social-democratic welfare states of Europed Contemporary period - Gov’ts found it increaseingly difficult to sustain full employment FACTORS (economic globalization, technological change and emergence of a knowledge based economy) - Reduction in income transfers - Increased investment in human capital - Security is no longer protection from market disruption but the capacity to participate in market and adapt to a changing global economy - Must go from passive transfers to active programs - Family support systems should be strengthened to help people (women)enter the labor market. How this affects : Knowledge workers - Rising incomes - Secure future - Challenging work - Mobility on international level Low-skill workers - Declining real incomes - Precarious employment - Uncertain future - The new paradigm promotes that citizens should continually upgrade their skills - The new paradigm assumes that inclusionis achieved through movement into the paid labour force and that growing inequality among paid workers is of secondary interest Income Transfers - Economic security for benificiaries have been reduced (employment insurance and social assistance) - Tightened eligibility requirements, reduced duration of benefits - Early 2000s brought serious changes and retrenchment. The steepest and sharpest reductions of income transfers were in Ontario with the Conservative government. - See chart :welfare income average for single parents (see P. 427, figure 13.3) - By the beginning of the new century, Canada was providing less than in earlier times to those dependent on social assistance - Additionally eligibility for disability benefits under the federal Canada Pension Plan and provincial social assistance programs was tightened (more narrowly defined medical criteria) As in virtually all western nations, inequality in market incomes has grown over the last 2 decades in Canada. The growth inequality is not as dramatic as in the UK or USA but it’s in the same direction. Investing In Human Capital - In the mid 1990s Canada was devoting 7% of its GDP to education, highest among G7 countries, th 4 in OECD. - Cda may rank among educational leaders but close to half of all young Cdns don’t complete post-secondary education. They face the future without the keys to the new changing economy Execution: The Public/Private Balance - Financial support for educational institutions weakened during the 1990s. emphasis on private responsibility for the development of human capital. Early childhood Learning and Childcare - Private responsibilt of individual families rather than collective task - Cdn researchers emphasize importance of early childhood development but Cdn gov’t hasn’t developed appropriate policy responses Post-secondary Education - Huge tuition fee increase - 85% increase within a decade in the 1990s - OSAP (provincial government eliminated grant programs : due to this . higher tuition + higher loan limits + less grant assistance = significantly more debt Adult Training - Want an “active labor market” yet  Little investment in labor market programs  Commitment to this program is lower than OECD average  Serious adult training is employee-sponsored  Disproportional amounts of training  poor distribution of training  Many Cdns including young people have a skills deficit, under investment, declining employability ( “creating an underclass of poorly educated people “)  Are they really committed ? POSTWAR PARADIGM : SOCIAL CONTEMPORARY/NOW: EDUCATIONAL Execution: Timing and Sequence Postwar Approach -responded directly to income disruption  result ? security for right then. Vs Human Capital Approach -strategies promise security in the future -require long time horizons (social investment) -benefits will take time to emerge -still experimenting with diff types and levels of intervention -requires commitment and patient capital from government Intrinsic Limits: The Social Determinants of Educational Attainment - More deeply rooted challenges to human-capital strategy
More Less

Related notes for POL214Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.