gov't determinants

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL312Y1
Professor
John Kirton
Semester
Winter

Description
The Chretien Years: - Debate – 1 disappointing continuity – adherence to status quo in a world of radical nd change – 2 isolationist decline – growing gap between Ottawa’s global commitments and Canada’s declining capabilities – Cohen 1995 – Chretien’s instinct ‘to stay home and cultivating one’s own garden’ – PD – discarded multilateralism in favour of regional issues – reliant on goodwill of much more powerful US and confining role in G7 – end of Chretien era – Canada as a ‘fading power’ – post-9/11 rd brought new challenges – 3 school – Canada’s rise to global leadership – transformation into a more fully engaged global leader – view acquired additional adherents after winning Quebec referendum, fiscal deficit disappeared and Axworthy as for minister – EXPANSIVE GLOBAL LEADERSHIP – 4 broad trends define transformation – 1. Geographically – historic focus on Atlantic and commonwealth was supplemented by a shift to Asia-Pacific region and Americas – 2. Functionally – earlier emphasis on Pearsonian ‘peace and security’ and Trudeau ‘economic growth’ replaced by new outward-oriented priority on trade, sustainable development, human security, and the promotion of Canadian values and interests abroad – for pol more multi-faceted, forceful and interventionist – institutionally – largely abandoned tradition support of UN – more plurilateral int’l institutions – supported by victory in Quebec referendum, Ottawa’s fiscal surplus, second majority mandate – Axworthy – R2P and Landmines convention – soft power and human security – THE CAUSES OF RELATIVE CAPABILITY AND EQUAL VULNERABILITY – several major systemic changes – end of cold war, intense globalisation, 9/11 – US share of G7 capabilities declined – decline of US dollar – rise in Canadian GDP – changes in polarity and processes – non-state actors and natural forces st - Doctrines – CANADA IN THE WORLD 1995 – 1 premise – leadership among open advanced societies as power dispersed and more economically defined – 2 premise nd rd – geographic advantage as new poles of power emerged in Asia – 3 premise – bicultural and multicultural personality – privileged access to Anglophone and th th francophone worlds – 4 premise – opportunities in summitry – 5 premise – multilateral mediatory role – based on history as non-colonising and effective int’l mediation – 3 priorities – 1. Promotion of prosperity and employment through trade – 2. Promotion of global peace to protect Canada’s security – 3. Projection of Canadian values and culture – 4 de facto priority – ecologically sustainable development – economy came first again, centred on employment and trade – CNR emphasis on projecting rather than protecting values, which were LI – DEFENCE WHITE PAPER 1994 – ‘multi-purpose, combat-capable’ sea, land and air forces, able to ‘fight alongside the best, against the best’ – priorities – 1. To protect Canada – 2. Cooperate with US – 3. Participation in peacekeeping and other multilateral operations – AXWORTHY DOCTRINE 1996 – soft power – priorities – antipersonnel mines, small arms, children’s rights, int’l human rights, peace building – some PD elements – living in a world dominated by US – LI components – emphasis on building int’l norms – CNR elements dominated – creation of new norms suggested Canada could and should modify world order – DIALOGUE REPORT 2003 – CNR – putting security first – advantages – diverse population, geography, economic openness st - Resource Distributions – SUMMIT DIPLOMACY – 1 year – intense, unprecedented travel – 9 tours to 36 countries – US came first, but almost equal attention to other G7 countries – next 2 years brought even more intense global involvement – plurilateralism – BUDGETS – initial PD entrenchment – driven by need for deficit elimination or ‘fiscal consolidation’ – internal shift to LI then CNR – greater consistency between doctrine and distribution – spending on int’l affairs accounted st nd for 10% - 1 budget decreased spending by 10% - 2 budget further cuts – money from DFAIT sent to UN multilateral orgs was redirected to national purposes under unilateral control – spending increased on way to G8 in 2002 – added $500m for ODA in Africa –
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