societal determinants

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Kirton

The Mulroney Years 1984-93: - Debate – CONTINENTALISM – priority of maintaining a close relationship with US – PM personal preference – gov’t rational calculation of a rising US and a declining Canada – sudden shift to PD – Taras 1985 – for pol is likely to differ … realms of Canadian-American relations – CONSTRUCTIVE INT’LISM – continuity of int’lism – PD short-lived by Pearsonian – clear law when Mulroney had to choose between US and UN, the latter always won – RISING ASSERTIVE GLOBALISM – Canada had 4 best friends – America, Britain, France, Israel – what it lacks in power, makes up in influence – if it fails with one state, often succeeds in another – SUSTAINED ASSERTIVE GLOBALISM – hegemonic transition – anyone entering office in ’84 would recognise America soaring to a lofty pre-eminence juxtaposed against Canada and other declining principle powers declining – little choice but to develop a close relationship – US decline in ’85 – new situation allowed and encouraged CNR - Doctrines – THE FOR POL REVIEW – ‘Competitiveness and security’ – overriding themes of competitiveness and ‘we-they’ zero sum world – needed a close relationship with US – CNR components of ODA – 6 priorities – 1. And 2. CNR – unity and sovereignty and independence – 3 and 4 LI – justice and democracy, peace and security – 5 and 6 CNR – economic prosperity and integrity of natural environment – ‘Canada’s int’l Relations’ – theme of active int’lism – THE FOUR THRONE SPEECHS – 1. Renewed Canadian int’lism – focused mostly on US – 2. Constructive int’lism – multilateralism based on US but on UN disappeared – 3. Ecologically sustainable economic development – national value of environmentalism – 4. For pol as central to domestic national unity – ‘one clear and united voice’ – JOE CLARK’S “NEW INTERNATIONALIMS” LECTURE 1986 – UofT – interests and influence are global – deployment of resources among all available channels – multilateral, plurilateral, bilateral – Canada had explicitly and assertively become a major power in global concert institutionalised in G7 – DEFENCE WHITE PAPER 1987 – 12 nuke powered attack submarines – AID POLICY – CNR impulses – ODA priorities must prevail – CANADA’S ROLE – CNR doctrinal evident in second mandate – references to Canada’s rank more prevalent – ‘major power but not a superpower’ – now advanced as a symbol of national identity - Resource Distributions – CNR – DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION –decline – 113 in 1984 to 107 in 1987 – increase in second mandate – 121 in 1993 – shift in regional distribution towards Asia – SUMMIT DIPLOMACY – mixed pattern – shows preoccupation with US PD – CNR pattern in sheer intensity and wide range of global partners – creation of the Francophone summit 1984 – BILATERAL INSTITUTIONS – practitioner of autonomous bilateral involvement of g
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