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POL359 - Institutional Structure of European Union October 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Institutional Structure of European Union Tuesday, October 1, 2013 11:46 PM Key Dates:  1947 Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan  United States transformed itself, no longer being isolationist. The United States will not allow any further Soviet encroachment towards Greece and Turkey.  Rebuilding of Western Europe.  Transformation of the role of the state à public transportation, art, culture, welfare.  Europe is diminished; role as world’s policemen, maker of international norms is no longer on Europe.  $13 billion for the Marshall Plan à around $100 billion today.  1948 Hague Congress  Beginning of the first Council of Europe.  1949 NATO formed  The Americans provided the Europeans with security, a massive European umbrella.  An answer to the interwar problems.  Commits the United States to Europe for the first time.  Unified alliance system, no more small ententes.  Most importantly, it gives the French the security they need.  Countered by the Warsaw Pact of the Soviet Union.  1949 Council of Europe  Frontline international organization of Europe that ensures free and fair elections, minority rights and runs the Venice Commission.  1950 Schumann Plan announced and EDC proposed  German and France pool their coal supplies, the main source of war production.  EDC failed.  1951 Treaty of Paris – European Coal and Steel Community established  Germany was the source of the Cold War. America believed a Germany that’s prosperous and lively would be best for Europe.  German reintegration with European communities.  Franco-German reconciliation.  Links West German to Western Europe, eliminating German ambiguity. Allows the Europeans to wed West Germany to the European project without threatening peace.  Allows them to improve their competitive nature.  “Political vehicle in economic disguise for overcoming Franco-German hostility.”  1954 WEU formed  (1955 à West Germany joins NATO, Warsaw Pact formed)  1957 Treaty of Rome – CORNERSTONE  It creates a number of European institutions  Proposed the progressive reduction of custom duties (tariffs) and the establishment of a customs union. Was intended to create a Free Trade common market of goods, works, services a capital within the European Community’s member states. Created a European social fun, creation of common transport and common agricultural policies.  “Lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe.”  Common market, free movement of goods, services, people and capital, develop common polices, especially in agriculture.  Treaty is mostly economic but politics is there too à prelude to Maastricht.  1959 Tariff cuts  1962 CAP regulations  1963 De Gaulle vetoes British membership  1967 De Gaulle vetoes British membership again  1968 CAP agreed on  1973 UK, Denmark and Ireland join  1974 European Council
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