Institutional Structure of European Union
Tuesday, October 1, 2013
1947 Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
United States transformed itself, no longer being isolationist. The United States
will not allow any further Soviet encroachment towards Greece and Turkey.
Rebuilding of Western Europe.
Transformation of the role of the state à public transportation, art, culture,
Europe is diminished; role as world’s policemen, maker of international norms is
no longer on Europe.
$13 billion for the Marshall Plan à around $100 billion today.
1948 Hague Congress
Beginning of the first Council of Europe.
1949 NATO formed
The Americans provided the Europeans with security, a massive European
An answer to the interwar problems.
Commits the United States to Europe for the first time.
Unified alliance system, no more small ententes.
Most importantly, it gives the French the security they need.
Countered by the Warsaw Pact of the Soviet Union.
1949 Council of Europe
Frontline international organization of Europe that ensures free and fair elections,
minority rights and runs the Venice Commission.
1950 Schumann Plan announced and EDC proposed
German and France pool their coal supplies, the main source of war production.
1951 Treaty of Paris – European Coal and Steel Community established
Germany was the source of the Cold War. America believed a Germany that’s
prosperous and lively would be best for Europe.
German reintegration with European communities.
Links West German to Western Europe, eliminating German ambiguity. Allows
the Europeans to wed West Germany to the European project without
Allows them to improve their competitive nature.
“Political vehicle in economic disguise for overcoming Franco-German hostility.”
1954 WEU formed
(1955 à West Germany joins NATO, Warsaw Pact formed)
1957 Treaty of Rome – CORNERSTONE
It creates a number of European institutions
Proposed the progressive reduction of custom duties (tariffs) and the
establishment of a customs union. Was intended to create a Free Trade common market of goods, works, services a capital within the European Community’s
member states. Created a European social fun, creation of common transport
and common agricultural policies.
“Lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe.”
Common market, free movement of goods, services, people and capital, develop
common polices, especially in agriculture.
Treaty is mostly economic but politics is there too à prelude to Maastricht.
1959 Tariff cuts
1962 CAP regulations
1963 De Gaulle vetoes British membership
1967 De Gaulle vetoes British membership again
1968 CAP agreed on
1973 UK, Denmark and Ireland join
1974 European Council