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Notes from chapter summaries


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Nick Rule

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FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY
-experimental psychology begins with structuralism:
ointrospection
-functionalism addresses the purpose of behaviour
-Gestalt:
othe assertion that the whole experience is different from the sum ifs parts led to an
approach emphasizing the subjective experience of perception
-Wundt: founder of modern experimental psych
-James: mind can’t be broken down into elements (stream of consciousness, functionalism)
-Malthus: struggle for survival, essay on population
-Freud: father of psychoanalytic theory
-Pavlov: classical conditioning
-Skinner: behaviourism
-Neisser: defines cognitive science
-Lewin: founder of modern social psych
-Watson: behaviourism
-Miller: cognitive science
BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
Neurotransmitters:
-Acetylcholine
omotor control and mental processes neurons directing muscle movement
-Monoamines
oEpinephrine and norepinephrine: involved in arousal and alertness.
oSerotonin: involved in impulse control, emotion, and dreaming
oDopamine: affects motor control and motivation
-Amino acids are general inhibitory and excitatory transmitters to the brain
oGABA: transmitter for inhibiting neuronal transmission
oGlutamate: involved in neuronal transmission and aids learning and memory
-Peptides modulate neurotransmission
oCCK, endorphins, and substance P affect satiation and pain
Central nervous system
-brain
-spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
-somatic system: relays sensory info
-autonomic system: alarm (sympathetic) and go back to normal (parasympathetic)
Endocrine system controlled by CNS (hypothalamus and pituitary)
BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Brain structures:
-spinal cord:
oautonomous function sensory inputs + direct muscle responses (reflexes)
-brain stem:
obasic programs of survival (puking and stuff)
-cerebellum:
obalance and movement
-subcortical structures:
ohypothalamus: vital functions
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othalamus: sensory relay
ohippocampus : memory
oamygdala: emotions
obasal ganglia: planning and producing movement
-cerebral cortex underlies complex mental activity:
ooccipital: vision
oparietal: touch
otemporal: hearing and speech comprehension
ofrontal: planning and movement
-neurons: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
Brain rewires itself throughout life, although plasticity decreases with age; biological basis for learning.
Separate brain hemispheres:
-corpus callosum connects the two sides of the brain
-left hemisphere:
oresponsible for language
ointerpreter strives to make sense of our experiences
-right hemisphere:
ocompetent in images and spatial relations
Awareness has many seats in the brain:
-blindsight demonstrates visual ability without awareness.
-Neuronal work-space model of consciousness variety of different cortical areas involved
Sleep:
-altered state of consciousness:
oREM sleep: genital stimulation and body paralysis
-adaptive behaviour:
ocircadian rhythms control changes in body function and sleep
-regulated by reticular formation and the pons
oreticular formation: arousal
othe pons: REM sleep
-dreams:
oactivation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams are side effects of brain activity
-sleep waves:
oalertness: beta
ojust before sleep: alpha
ostage one (drifting into sleep): theta
ostage two (keeps you sleeping): k-complex and sleep spindles
ostages 3 and 4 (slow-wave sleep): delta
SENSATION, PERCEPTION, and ATTENTION
Stimulus response:
-signal-detection theory: the detecting a stimulus requires making a judgement about its
presence or absence, based on a subjective interpretation of ambiguous information
-our sensory systems are turned to adapt to constant levels of stimulation and detect changes
in our environment.
Basic sensory processes:
-gustation: taste buds are chemical detectors
-smell: nasal cavity gathers particles of odour
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-skin: sensors in skin detect pressure, temperature, and pain
-hearing: ear = sound-wave detector
-seeing: eyes = light wave detector
Perception:
-hearing: primary auditory cortex
-touch: primary somatosensory cortex
-vision: occipital lobe
-Gestalt principles of stimulus organization similarity, proximity, form, figure, and
background properies
-dual processes: bottom-up (sensory information) and top-down (brain organization)
-depth perception is important for locating objects:
obinocular (two retinas): depth
omonocular (pictorial): info from the appearance of objects, relative to surrounds and
motion
-size perception depends on distance perception
-motion perception has both internal and external cues
-perceptual constancies based on ratio relationships
-reality sensory receptors transduction (physical energy electrical) thalamus 
primary sensory cortex further (Really Sue Take That Pink Fluff)
Attention:
-visual attention is selective and serial
-auditory attention allows selective listening i.e. cocktail party phenomenon
-selective attention can operate at multiple stages of processing:
odebate on selective attention centres on when info is filtered or passed on for future
processing
LEARNING AND REWARD
Classical conditioning:
-behavioural responses are conditioned
-phobias and addictions have learned components
-classical conditioning involves more than contiguity dangerous connections made more
easily
Operant conditioning:
-reinforcement increases behaviour
oprimary: satisfy biological needs
osecondary: those that to not directly satisfy biological needs
-both reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative:
o+ reinforcement or punishment: delivery of a stimulus after the response
o reinforcement or punishment: removal of a stimulus after the response
-operant conditioning is influenced by schedules of reinforcement
-biology and cognition influence operate conditioning:
olatent learning refers to learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
-the value of reinforcement follows economic principles:
ocost-benefit analysis
Learning:
-learning can be passed on through cultural transmission:
omemes: knowledge transferred within a culture, analogous to genes, in that
behaviours are selectively passed on from generation to generation.
-learning can occur through observation
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