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Chapter 13

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Cognitive Dissonance, Murder Of Kitty Genovese, Fundamental Attribution Error

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Michael Inzlicht

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PSY100 Chapter 13
Social Psychology
The Power of the Situation: Social Influences on Behavior 13.1
Mimicry: taking on for ourselves the behaviors, emotional displays, and facial expressions of others
o Coordinating our behavior with others is a key part of learning to get along with each other
Chameleon Effect: people mimic others non-consciously, automatically copying others behaviors
even without realizing it
Social Norms: guidelines for how to behave in social contexts
Group Dynamics: Social Loafing and Social Facilitation
Social Loafing: occurs when an individual puts less effort into working on a task with others
What factors encourage loafing:
o Low efficacy beliefs: occurs if tasks are too difficult or complex, so people don’t know where
to start
o Believing that ones contributions are not important to the groups: people cant see how their
own input matters to the group
o Not caring about the groups outcome: when a person is not personally identified with the
o Feeling like others are not trying very hard: people loaf if they feel like others are loafing
Social Facilitation: occurs when ones performance is affected by the presence of others
o The presence of others is arousing, and arousal tends to strengthen our dominant responses
Groupthink: refers to this stifling of diversity that occurs when individuals are not able to express their true
perspectives, instead having to focus on agreeing with others and maintaining harmony in the group
Groups in which members are more similar to each other, especially in terms of shared sociopolitical
perspectives, are more likely to fall into groupthink
Asch Experiments: Conformity
Participants were seated at a table along with several other people who seemed like other participants but
who were in fact people working with the experimenter.
They were asked to look at an image of three lines, and choose which was the same length as a “standard
line.” The task was designed to be very easy Asch showed that when people were allowed to give their
answers privately, they were correct almost 100% of the time. However, things changed when answers
were spoken aloud in front of a group
Normative Influence: social pressure to adopt a groups perspective in order to be accepted, rather than
rejected, by a group
Informational Influence: which occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group, coming
to believe the same things and feel the same ways themselves
The Bystander Effect: Situational Influences on Helping Behavior
Kitty Genovese murder was witnessed but no one did anything to save her
Bystander Effect: the presence of other people actually reduces the likelihood of helping behavior
Diffusion of responsibility: which occurs when the responsibility for taking action is spread across more
than one person, thus making no single individual feel personally responsible
Pluralistic Ignorance: This occurs when there is a disjunction between the private beliefs of individuals and
the public behavior they display to others
Social Roles: are more specific sets of expectations for how someone in a specific position should behave
Social Roles: The Stanford Prison Study
Zimbardo conducted a prison study where some subjects were arrested as prisoners and others were prison
By the second day the prisoners staged a rebellion and refused to cooperate with the guards, which caused
the guards to decide to use force to subdue them. Afterwards, the prisoners followed the guards orders, and
tried to be good prisoners
Obedience to Authority: The Milgram Experiment
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