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Chapter 7

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Mnemonic, Semantic Network, Representativeness Heuristic


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
7

Page:
of 11
Forgetting
Forgetting
Forgetting
PSY100 Chapter 7
Memory Systems 7.1
The Atkinson-Shriffin Model
It includes 3 memory stores: retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose
o These stores include sensory memory, short term memory (STM), and long term memory
(LTM)
Control processes: shift information from one memory store to another
Stages of the model:
Sensory Memory: is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of
time
Iconic Memory: the visual form. Held ½-1 second
Echoic Memory: the auditory form. Held for about 5 seconds
George Sperling devised a method for testing the storage capacity of iconic memory
o In his experiment, researchers flashed a grid of letters on a screen for a split second and
participants had to report what they saw. Participants could only name one line of letters
o Sperling concluded that iconic memory could hold all 12 letters as a mental image, but that
they would only remain in sensory memory long enough for a few letters to be reported
Attention allows us to move a small amount of the information from our sensory memory into STM
for further processing. This information is often referred to as being within the spotlight of
attention
Change Blindness: the sensory memory of photograph A disappears before the onset of photograph
B, making it difficult to identify the difference between the two pictures
Short Term Memory and the Magical Number Seven
Short term memory: is a memory store with limited capacity and duration
Magical Number Seven: Miller found participants were able to remember seven units of info. STM can
rehearse only seven units of information at once before forgetting something
Whenever possible we expand our memory capacity with chunking: organizing smaller units of info
into larger, more meaningful units
o Experience and expertise plays a role in our ability to chunk large amounts of information so
that it fits into our STM
Long Term Memory: holds information for extended periods of time, if not permanently
All information that undergoes encoding will be entered into LTM
Once entered into LTM, the info needs to be organized. There are atleast 2 ways this will occur:
o One way is based on the semantic categories that the items belong to. Semantically related
items are stored near each other in LTM (ex: cat and dog go together like drums and guitar
Stimulus
Sensory
Organs
(Eyes, Ears)
Sensory
Memory
(shortlived)
Short Term
Memory
Long Term
Memory
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go together)
o LTM is also organized based on the sounds of the word and how the word looks. Tip of the
tongue phenomenon: when you are able to retrieve similar sounding words or words that
start with the same letter but cant quite retrieve the word you actually want
The Working Memory Model: An Active STM System
Rehearsal: repeating information until you do not need to remember it anymore
Working memory: a model of short term remembering that includes a combination of memory
components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of time
o A key feature of this is that it recognizes stimuli are encoded simultaneously in a number of
different ways rather than simply as a single unit for information
Phonological loop: is a storage component of working memory that relies on rehearsal and that
stores information as sounds or an auditory code
Word length effect: people remember more one syllabus words than four/five syllabus words
Visuospatial sketchpad: storage component of working memory that maintains visual images and
spatial layouts in a visuospatial code
o Keeps you up to date on where objects are around you and where you intend to go
o To do this it engages portions of the brain related to perception of vision and space and does
not affect memory for sounds
o Feature binding: combining visual features into a single unit
Episodic Buffer: storage component of working memory that combines the images and sounds from
the other two components into coherent, story-like episodes
o Holds 7-10 pieces of info
Central Executive: is the control center of working memory; it coordinates attention and the
exchange of information among the three storage components
o )t does so by examining what information is relevant to the person’s goals, interests, and
prior knowledge and then focusing attention on the working memory component whose
information will be most useful in that situation
Long Term Memory Systems: Declarative and Non-declarative Memories
Declarative memories/explicit memories: memories that we are consciously aware of and that can be
verbalized, including facts about the world and ones own personal experiences
Non-declarative memories/implicit memories: include actions or behaviors that you can remember
and perform without awareness
Declarative Memory
Comes in two varieties:
o Episodic memories: declarative memories for personal experiences that seem to be
organized around episodes and are recalled from a first person perspective (ex: first day of
uni, party you went to last month)
o Semantic memories: declarative memories that include facts about the world (ex: knowing
Halifax is the capital of Nova Scotia)
Non-Declarative Memory
Non declarative memory occurs when previous experiences influence performance on a task that
does not require the person to intentionally remember those experiences
Procedural memories: patterns of muscle movements such as how to walk, play piano, drive a car
Classic conditioning: when a previously neutral stimulus produces a new response because it has a
history of being paired with another stimulus that produces that response
Priming: based on the idea that previous exposure to to a stimulus will affect an individuals later
responses
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory
Lasting memories require consolidation: the process of converting short-term memories into long
term memories in the brain
o When neurons fi re together a number of times, they will adapt and make the changes more
permanenta process called cellular consolidation
The initial strengthening of synapses and longer term consolidation of these connections allow us to
form new memories, thus providing us with an ability to learn and to adapt our behaviour based on
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previous experiences.
Memory, the Brain, and Amnesia
Henry Molaison (neurological patient H.M.)
o On September 1, 1953, Henry Molaison underwent a resection (removal) of his medial
temporal lobesincluding the hippocampuson both sides of his brain
o The doctors quickly determined that H.M. had amnesia a profound loss of at least one
form of memory.
o H.M could no longer encode new information. He was experiencing a specific type of amnesia
know as anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new memories for events occurring
after a brain injury
o This damage included the hippocampus and surrounding cortex as well as the amygdala.
Based on H.M. and several similar cases, researchers concluded that this region of the brain
must be involved with consolidating memories, enabling information from STM to enter and
remain in LTM, The hippocampus also appears to be essential for spatial memories such as
remembering the layout of your house or recalling the route you would take to get to a
friend’s house. This function might also be linked to consolidationremembering spatial
information often involves updating a memory with new information such as learning
alternative routes to get to your destination
Memories undergo a process called reconsolidation, in which the hippocampus functions to update,
strengthen, or modify existing long-term memories. These memories then form networks in different
regions of the cortex where they can be retrieved when necessary
Cross Cortical Storage: long term declarative memories are distributed throughout the cortex of the
brain
Retrograde Amnesia: a condition in which memory for the events preceding trauma or injury is
lost. Common following head injuries
Encoding and Retrieving Memories 7.2
Encoding and Retrieval
Encoding: process of transforming sensory and perceptual information into memory traces
Retrieval: process of accessing memorized information and returning it to short term memory
Storage: refers to the time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and
retrieval
Basics of Encoding
Maintenance Rehearsal: prolonging exposure to information by repeating it
Elaborative Rehearsal: prolonging exposure to information by thinking about its meaning
Levels of Processing
Levels of Processing:
o Shallow processing involves more superficial properties of a stimulus, such as the sound
or spelling of a word
o Deep processing generally related to an items meaning or its function
o Self reference effect occurs when you think about information in terms of how it relates to
you or how it is useful to you
o Survival processing items that are processed as they relate to survival are more likely to
be recalled
Retrieval
Recognition: involves identifying a stimulus or piece of information when it is presented to you
Recall: involves retrieving information when asked, but without that information being present
during the retrieval process.
Encoding specificity principle: retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same context as
encoding
Context dependent forgetting: we believe the change in the environment influenced the forgetting
Context reinstatement effect: occurs when you return to the original location and the memory
suddenly comes back
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