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Chapter 16

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Disulfiram, Dyskinesia, Psychoactive Drug

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Dan Dolderman

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16.1 Treating Psychological Disorders
Women more than men, adults 35-55 more than young adults caucasians more than asians and
natives are more likely to seek therapy
Barriers to treatment: ambiguity of “healthy” and “ill”, denial, stigma, cost, time taken
Clinical psychologists: PhD, able to formally diagnose and treat mental health issues
Counselling psychologists: Masters or PhD mental health professionals who work with more
common problems like stress and mild anxiety/depression
Psychiatrists: medical doctor who specialize in mental health and are able to diagnose and
treat through medication
Inpatient treatment
Institutions began to emerge in the 14th century and were brutal
In the 1700s, Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix helped asylums become more humane
and more focused on treating people as ill rather than prisoners, but they were still
overcrowded and ineffective
In the 1960s, treatments and medication began to emerge that caused a movement
toward deinstitutionalization: mental health patients were released back into their
communities after having symptoms alleviated through medication. The next 3 decades
saw a 85% decrease in inpatients
now more popular are residential treatment centres, which give therapy and life skills
training with the explicit goal on helping residents become re-integrated into society.
They range from low to high level security.
Community Psychology: focuses on identifying how individuals’ mental health is influenced by
the neighbourhood, economic an community resources and social groups. After
deinstitutionalization, there was a need for wide scope psychology in order to help with the swell
in homelessness and substance abuse.
Empirically supported treatment: has been tested and evaluated. Effectiveness is not so easy
to measure as the therapist and patient in any given situation is more important than the
treatment style.
Bibliotherapy: the use of self-help books and other reading materials as a form of therapy
16.2 Psychological Therapies
Insight therapies: general term referring to dialogue between client and therapist for the purposes
of gaining awareness and understanding of psychological problems. Came with the development of
psychoanalysis by Freud.
Psychodynamic therapies: forms of insight therapy that emphasize discovery and resolution of
unconscious conflict.
Psychoanalysis, Freud: explores the unconscious.
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Core ideas:
Adults’ psychological conflicts have their origins in early experiences.
These conflicts affect the thoughts and emotions of the individual, and their source often
remains outside of conscious awareness.
The unconscious conflicts and their effects are called neuroses (anxieties).
By accessing the unconscious mind, the analyst and client can gain a better understanding
of the early conflicts that lead to neuroses.
Once the conflicts are brought to the surface, the analyst and the client can work through
them together.
The unconscious was accessed through:
1. Free association: talking or writing without any censoring
2. Dream analysis: a method of understanding the unconscious by examining the details
of what happens during a dream (the manifest content) in order to gain insight into the
true emotion unconscious meaning (the latent content)
3. Resistance: the treatment brings up unconscious material that the client wishes to avoid
and they engage in strategies from keeping this info out of conscious awareness. The
avoidance can help signal their difficulties
4. Transference: a process whereby clients direct emotional experiences that they are
reliving toward the therapist, rather than the original person.
Modern Psychodynamic therapies
newer forms are: less focused on the unconscious, acknowledge interpersonal influence on
behaviour and are more optimistic.
Object relations therapy: focuses on how early childhood experiences and emotional
attachments influence later psychological functioning
Interpersonal psychotherapy, Harry Stack Sullivan: emphasizes interpersonal relationships.
The therapist is the participant observer, where they interact with and observe the patient in
order to evaluate their relationships. Influenced…
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT), which focuses on improving social skills and guiding them
through interpersonal issues and life transitions. Fast and effective for depression, substance
abuse and eating disorders.
Humanistic-existential psychotherapy:
In the 50s, humanistic psychologists broke from psychoanalysis with 5 fundamental differences:
Existential therapy: similar in that it focuses on becoming authentic and loving and live more in
the present. It is different in that humanistic therapists focus on removing obstacles that prevent
self-actualization, whereas existential therapists emphasize facing painful experiences and
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